New Jersey Lyme and Co-Infections:
Where is The New Research?
New Jersey is infected with deer ticks and it is obvious to anyone looking at many areas of evidence.
Larvae — are very small (about the size of a pin head) and tan. They feed in late summer, near ground level, on mice, shrews, chipmunks, voles, and other small animals. Larvae can pick up the disease from an infected animal. Peak activity: August.
First, this helpful CDC and NASD image shows the small size of deer ticks and they are not black, it is merely the color of the fonts. They inject a pain killer and an anti-histamine and an anticoagulant to allow for maximized spread of the many types of infections it carries.
It appears that about 2800 per year are infected and meet highly rigid and research oriented criteria from lab tests which have very high false negatives. And even if the kits were not dummied down to a mere two species specific proteins for the M class test, which is an virtually an anti-test, we know from one study 1/40 physicians report Lyme when all the ducks are lined up in the eccentric "real case" research criteria definition.
In my area of Florida we have vast numbers coming from New Jersey for care and to live and vacation. And many have tick and flea-borne infections like Lyme, Babesia or serious atypical Bartonella. The latter two make Lyme cure more complex, then filtered simplistic studies which exclude all the normal complex patients.
Outdoor Workers with High Positive Rates
To evaluate the spread of Lyme disease in New Jersey, we conducted a statewide cross-sectional study of Lyme disease seroprevalence in a high-risk occupational group of outdoor employees. Of the 689 employees who participated in the study, 39 (5.7 percent) were positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Seroprevalence varied markedly by county; unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates were found in several northern counties (Sussex, Hudson, and Hunterdon). Furthermore, some southern counties (Atlantic, Cape May, and Ocean) with large tick populations (as measured by self-reported exposure to ticks) had low seroprevalence rates which were inversely correlated with self-reported preventive practices. These data suggest that Lyme disease, as measured by seroprevalence of antibody to B. burgdorferi, may be spreading beyond the southern portion of the state where it had been previously well documented and that preventive behaviors may play an important role in minimizing the risk of the disease.
Am J Public Health. 1990 October; 80(10): 1225Ð1229.
Lyme disease in New Jersey outdoor workers: a statewide survey of seroprevalence and tick exposure. M D Goldstein, B S Schwartz, C Friedmann, B Maccarillo, M Borbi, and R Tuccillo
SOME SAMPLE CO-INFECTION STUDIES SHOWING THAT TO IGNORE OR TO CASUALLY TEST OR TO TREAT WITH QUESTIONABLE DOSING — BAD MEDICINE
Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Northern New Jersey.
Adelson ME, Rao RV, Tilton RC, Cabets K, Eskow E, Fein L, Occi JL, Mordechai E.
Medical Diagnostic Laboratories L.L.C., 133 Gaither Dr., Suite C, Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054, USA.
PCR analysis of Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in New Jersey identified infections with Borrelia burgdorferi (33.6%), Babesia microti (8.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophila (1.9%), and Bartonella spp. (34.5%). The I. scapularis tick is a potential pathogen vector that can cause coinfection and contribute to the variety of clinical responses noted in some tick-borne disease patients.
PMID: 15184475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Endemic babesiosis in another eastern state: New Jersey.
Herwaldt BL, McGovern PC, Gerwel MP, Easton RM, MacGregor RR.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In the United States, most reported cases of babesiosis have been caused by Babesia microti and acquired in the northeast. Although three cases of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey were recently described by others, babesiosis has not been widely known to be endemic in New Jersey. We describe a case of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey in 1999 in an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who developed life-threatening disease. We also provide composite data on 40 cases of babesiosis acquired from 1993 through 2001 in New Jersey. The 40 cases include the one we describe, the three cases previously described, and 36 other cases reported to public health agencies. The 40 cases were acquired in eight (38.1%) of the 21 counties in the state. Babesiosis, a potentially serious zoonosis, is endemic in New Jersey and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and hemolytic anemia, particularly in the spring, summer, and early fall.
PMID: 12603988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Southern extension of the range of human babesiosis in the eastern United States.
Eskow ES, Krause PJ, Spielman A, Freeman K, Aslanzadeh J.
The Univeristy of Connecticut, Farmington, USA.
We sought evidence of babesiosis in three residents of New Jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of Babesia microti infection. We tested serial blood samples from these residents for B. microti antibodies and amplifiable DNA by using immunofluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable DNA, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. These data suggest that human B. microti infections were acquired recently in New Jersey, extending the range of this piroplasmosis in the northeastern United States.
PMID: 10325378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes scapularis in a rural New Jersey County.
Varde S, Beckley J, Schwartz I.
New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA.
To assess the potential risk for other tick-borne diseases, we collected 100 adult Ixodes scapularis in Hunterdon County, a rapidly developing rural county in Lyme disease endemic western New Jersey. We tested the ticks by polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and the rickettsial agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Fifty-five ticks were infected with at least one of the three pathogens: 43 with B. burgdorferi, five with B. microti, and 17 with the HGE agent. Ten ticks were coinfected with two of the pathogens. The results suggest that county residents are at considerable risk for infection by a tick-borne pathogen after an I. scapularis bite.
PMID: 9452402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]