or Human Sarcocystic Infections:
Diagnosis and Treatment
Below is a summary of information of human or mammal infection from Sarcocystis, sarcosporidiosis or human sarcocystic infections.
1. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 May;5(5):e1142. Epub 2011 May 24.
Polyparasitism is associated with increased disease severity in Toxoplasma
gondii-infected marine sentinel species.
Gibson AK, Raverty S, Lambourn DM, Huggins J, Magargal SL, Grigg ME.
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
In 1995, one of the largest outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis occurred in the
Pacific Northwest region of North America. Genetic typing identified a novel
Toxoplasma gondii strain linked to the outbreak, in which a wide spectrum of
human disease was observed. For this globally-distributed, water-borne zoonosis,
strain type is one variable influencing disease, but the inability of strain type
to consistently explain variations in disease severity suggests that parasite
genotype alone does not determine the outcome of infection. We investigated
polyparasitism (infection with multiple parasite species) as a modulator of
disease severity by examining the association of concomitant infection of T.
gondii and the related parasite Sarcocystis neurona with protozoal disease in
wild marine mammals from the Pacific Northwest. These hosts ostensibly serve as
sentinels for the detection of terrestrial parasites implicated in water-borne
epidemics of humans and wildlife in this endemic region. Marine mammals (151
stranded and 10 healthy individuals) sampled over 6 years were assessed for
protozoal infection using multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing directly from host
tissues. Genetic analyses uncovered a high prevalence and diversity of protozoa,
with 147/161 (91%) of our sampled population infected. From 2004 to 2009, the
relative frequency of S. neurona infections increased dramatically, surpassing
that of T. gondii. The majority of T. gondii infections were by genotypes bearing
Type I lineage alleles, though strain genotype was not associated with disease
severity. Significantly, polyparasitism with S. neurona and T. gondii was common
(42%) and was associated with higher mortality and more severe protozoal
encephalitis. Our finding of widespread polyparasitism among marine mammals
indicates pervasive contamination of waterways by zoonotic agents. Furthermore,
the significant association of concomitant infection with mortality and protozoal
encephalitis identifies polyparasitism as an important factor contributing to
disease severity in marine mammals.
PMID: 21629726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2. Parasitol Res. 2011 Dec;109(6):1677-87. Epub 2011 May 11.
Detection of a morphogenetically novel Sarcocystis hominis-like in the context of
a prevalence study in semi-intensively bred cattle in Italy.
Domenis L, Peletto S, Sacchi L, Clementi E, Genchi M, Felisari L, Felisari C, Mo
P, Modesto P, Zuccon F, Campanella C, Maurella C, Guidetti C, Acutis PL.
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via
Bologna 148, 10154 Torino, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in
semi-intensively bred cattle in northwestern Italy. A diagnostic protocol was
setup in which infected animals were identified by rapid histological examination
of the esophagus, diaphragm, and heart and the detected Sarcocystis spp. were
subsequently typed using conventional electron microscopy in combination with
molecular techniques. Sarcosporidia cysts were detected in 78.1% of the animals
and were seen most often in the esophagus. The cattle is intermediate host for
Sarcocystis hominis (final host, humans and some primates), Sarcocystis cruzi
(final host, domestic and wild canids), and Sarcocystis hirsuta (final host, wild
and domestic cats).All these three species of Sarcocystis were identified,
variously associated, with the following prevalence: S. cruzi (74.2%), S. hirsuta
(1.8%), and S. hominis (42.7%). Furthermore, a new S. hominis-like (prevalence
18.5%), characterized by hook-like structures of villar protrusion and a
different sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, was identified. The cattle sheds testing
positive for zoonotic Sarcocystis were assessed for risk factors contributing to
the maintenance of the parasite's life cycle. Significant associations emerged
between consumption of raw meat by the farm owner, mountain pasturing, and
absence of a sewerage system on the farm and cattle breed. Our study demonstrates
that sarcosporidiosis may constitute a public health problem in Italy and
indicates several issues to be addressed when planning surveillance and
prevention actions. The applied diagnostic approach revealed that cattle can
harbor a further type of Sarcocystis, of which life cycle and zoonotic potential
should be investigated.
PMID: 21556683 [PubMed - in process]
3. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2010 Dec
[Research progress on human sarcocystosis].
[Article in Chinese]
Hu JJ, Meng Y, Chen XW, Zuo YX, Wu P.
School of Life Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China. email@example.com
Human sarcocystosis (both the intestinal and muscular forms) may be emerging as a
significant, foodborne zoonotic infection in southeast Asia and southwest of
China. This review summarizes recent findings in classification of Sarcocystis
spp, epidemiologic features, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and
prevention in human infections.
PMID: 21500537 [PubMed - in process]
4. Planta Med. 2011 Apr;77(6):618-30. Epub 2011 Mar 22.
Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are
lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.
Pohlit AM, Rezende AR, Lopes Baldin EL, Lopes NP, Neto VF.
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.
The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or
effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases
is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease
(American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic
fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis),
giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness),
isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria,
onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal
agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus,
coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils
(EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs
(mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus),
American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella
germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala
Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies
(Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs
(Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus
humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen,
Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies
(Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites
(Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S.
scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch,
and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated
chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the
synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds,
etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
PMID: 21432748 [PubMed - in process]
5. Vet Parasitol. 2011 May 31;178(1-2):35-9. Epub 2010 Dec 25.
Sarcocystis sinensis is an ultrastructurally distinct parasite of water buffalo
that can cause foodborne illness but cannot complete its life-cycle in human
Chen X, Zuo Y, Rosenthal BM, He Y, Cui L, Yang Z.
Department of Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091, PR China.
In this study, we compared the morphology of Sarcocystis sinensis and Sarcocystis
hominis, and assessed the infectiousness of S. sinensis for human volunteers. The
cysts of S. sinensis were from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and those of S.
hominis were from cattle (Bos taurus). Transmission electron microscopy of S.
sinensis cysts revealed that the cyst wall had leaning, finger-like protrusions
measuring 1.44-5.08 μm in length and without invaginations on the tip surface of
the protrusions. In contrast, the cyst wall of S. hominis had upright,
finger-like protrusions measuring 9.43 μm×2.42 μm and with vesicle-like
invaginations on the tip surface of the protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy
revealed that surface of the protrusions was arranged as rectangles in S.
sinensis, as compared to tongue-shaped in S. hominis. Other distinguishing
features of S. sinensis include a thin ground substrate (GS) zone with
microtubules and small, circle-like structures located at the base of the
protrusions. Human volunteers, after consuming S. sinensis cysts, produced no
sporocysts or oocysts in feces, suggesting that humans could not serve as
definitive hosts for S. sinensis. By contrast, many sporocysts and oocysts were
passed in feces of a human volunteer 11-29 days after ingestion of S. hominis
cysts. These results showed that S. sinensis and S. hominis are separate species
and S. sinensis cannot use human being as the definitive host.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21236581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6. PLoS Genet. 2010 Dec 23;6(12):e1001261.
Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the
apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.
Wendte JM, Miller MA, Lambourn DM, Magargal SL, Jessup DA, Grigg ME.
Molecular Parasitology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National
Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona,
are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and
intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii
reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single
strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a
potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive
and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits,
such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate
hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population
structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles
self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population
structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease
epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution
genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that
caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S.
neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters.
In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting
outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one
of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment.
Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak,
the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results
also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii
clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation
potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite
clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause
devastating disease outbreaks.
PMID: 21203443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7. Parasitol Res. 2010 Nov;107(6):1445-53. Epub 2010 Aug 10.
Corvid birds (Corvidae) act as definitive hosts for Sarcocystis ovalis in moose
Gjerde B, Dahlgren SS.
Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Section of Microbiology,
Immunology and Parasitology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box
8146 Dep., 0033, Oslo, Norway. Bjorn.Gjerde@nvh.no
Epidemiological data and a unique phylogenetic position had suggested that
Sarcocystis ovalis in moose and red deer might use a definitive host other than
canids, felids, or humans. Corvid birds and rats were therefore evaluated as
potential definitive hosts for this species in a small pilot study. Four
laboratory rats were each inoculated with 10 or 25 sarcocysts of S. ovalis
isolated from moose, but no Sarcocystis oocysts were detected in their intestinal
mucosa upon euthanasia 2 to 3 weeks later. At a site where large flocks of corvid
birds (hooded crows, ravens and European magpies) fed on remnants of moose
carcasses during the hunting period in October, fresh bird droppings were
collected on the ground and examined microscopically and by molecular methods. By
microscopy, a small number of typical Sarcocystis sporocysts, measuring 12.8 ×
8.4 μm, were found in the faecal samples. These sporocysts were identified as
belonging to S. ovalis by a polymerase chain reaction assay using specific primer
pairs targeting the ssu rRNA gene, followed by sequence analysis. The intestinal
contents of a crow and two magpies shot near the dumping site were also examined.
Sarcocystis oocysts (16.1 × 12.4 μm) and free sporocysts (12.5 × 7.9 μm) were
found in the intestinal mucosa/contents of one magpie (Pica pica). These
oocysts/sporocysts were also found to belong to S. ovalis by the same molecular
assay. This is the first report of corvid birds acting as definitive hosts for a
species of Sarcocystis.
PMID: 20697910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8. Parasitol Int. 2009 Sep;58(3):293-6. Epub 2009 Mar 29.
Non-invasive methods for identifying oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. from definitive
Xiang Z, Chen X, Yang L, He Y, Jiang R, Rosenthal BM, Luan P, Attwood SW, Zuo Y,
Zhang YP, Yang Z.
Parasitology Department, Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan 650031, PR
Because the excreted sporocysts and/or oocysts of various species of Sarcocystis
may not be discriminated morphologically, we sought to validate a diagnostic
technique based on variation in the 18S rDNA sequence. Oocysts and/or sporocysts
from three taxa of Sarcocystis were collected from human, feline, and canine
definitive hosts that had fed upon meats infected with the muscle cysts of
Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis fusiformis and a species of Sarcocystis from
water buffalo that could not be distinguished from Sarcocystis cruzi. Using a new
collection method employing filter paper, these excreted oocysts and sporocysts
were subjected to DNA extraction, as were the corresponding muscle cysts. Methods
employing PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of a partial 18S rDNA gene (ssrRNA)
sequence were then used to successfully distinguish among the three taxa. The
same, unique restriction digestion pattern characterizes the tissue cysts and
oocysts and/or sporocysts of each parasite taxon. The technique makes possible
amplification and identification of species specific gene sequences based on DNA
extracted from as few as 7 excreted sporocysts (the equivalent of 3 and 1/2
oocysts) from freshly prepared material, or as few as 50 sporocysts from feces
samples that had been stored in potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) for as long as 6
years. This represents the first report using molecular diagnostic procedures to
diagnose oocysts of Sarcocystis in faecal samples, describing a valuable new tool
for studying the epidemiology of various Sarcocystis species.
PMID: 19336258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
9. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2008 Aug;38(2):599-608.
Comparative morphological studies on three Sarcocystis species in Sohag, Egypt.
Khalifa RM, El-Nadi NA, Sayed FG, Omran EK.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Assiut, Egypt.
Samples from the tongue, heart, oesophageal and skeletal muscles were collected
from 100 cow and 100 buffalo from Sohag slaughterhouses. Macroscopic examination
for sarcocysts was followed by microscopic ones on impression smears and
compressed muscles. Histological sections and transmission electron microscope
(TEM) studies were done on positive cases. Sarcocystis infection rate of cows
were 84%. Two species of Sarcocystis were detected: 1- S. cruzi with a membrane
provided with hair-like villar protrusions folded over the surface of the cyst.
These protrusions were rod-like, round, oval or irregular in shape and were
approximately parallel to the cyst surface. 2-S. hominis characterized by a cyst
wall consisting of cylindrical finger-like villar protrusions and having
microfilaments. The protrusions were perpendicular on the cyst surface with broad
tips and contain microfilaments. Buffaloes' muscle samples revealed an infection
rate of 28%. The macroscopic fusiform-shaped species only was detected
(Sarcocystis fusiformis). The role of cyst wall ultrastructure and thickness were
discussed regarding identification and pathogenicity.
PMID: 18853631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10. Hum Pathol. 2008 Aug;39(8):1263-7. Epub 2008 Jul 7.
Systemic sarcocystosis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Velásquez JN, Di Risio C, Etchart CB, Chertcoff AV, Mendez N, Cabrera MG, Labbé
JH, Carnevale S.
Hospital Municipal de Infecciosas Dr Francisco Javier Muñiz, ANLIS Dr Carlos G.
Malbrán, Buenos Aires, 1281 Argentina. firstname.lastname@example.org
Sarcocystis sp is a tissue coccidian parasite in humans that causes intestinal
and muscular sarcocystosis in immunocompetent patients. Intestinal sarcocystosis
can be diagnosed at the tissue level in the lamina propria of the small bowel and
by fecal examination. Muscular sarcocystosis is diagnosed by microscopic
examination of muscle biopsies. This report describes a case of systemic
sarcocystosis in an HIV-infected patient. We studied a 31-year-old patient with
AIDS, chronic diarrhea, cholestatic hepatitis, and musculoskeletal pain by stool
analysis and endoscopy with duodenal and liver biopsy specimens that were
processed for routine histology. The microgamete and macrogamete stages of
Sarcocystis sp were present in the lamina propria, with sporulated oocysts in
feces. Schizont stages of the protozoa were found in liver biopsy. In summary,
sarcocystosis should be considered another opportunistic infection in
PMID: 18602666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11. Vet Parasitol. 2008 Aug 1;155(1-2):158-60. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in
llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy, Argentina.
Moré G, Pardini L, Basso W, Marín R, Bacigalupe D, Auad G, Venturini L, Venturini
Inmunoparasitology and Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
National University of La Plata, La Plata, Argentina. email@example.com
Llamas (Lama glama) are South American camelids described as intermediate hosts
of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis aucheniae. Due to the
potential role of these protozoan infections as a cause of economic losses, the
aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for T. gondii, N. caninum
and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas from Argentina. Serum samples from 308 llamas (>2
years old) were collected between 2005 and 2007. A total of 55 farms located in
six departments of Jujuy province, Argentina were sampled. Presence of antibodies
to N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. was determined by the indirect
fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). For Sarcocystis, 2 different bradyzoites-based
antigens were prepared using S. aucheniae and S. cruzi. Sera were tested at
dilutions 1:25 and 1:50. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 4.6% serum
samples. Fifty percent of departments and 14.5% of farms had positive animals.
Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30% of samples, distributed in 66% of
departments and 43.6% of farms. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp. were detected in
96% of samples and all departments and farms had positive animals, suggesting
frequent contact between llamas and canids. Co-infection with N. caninum, T.
gondii and Sarcocystis sp. was also recorded. Low seroprevalence of N. caninum in
llamas detected in this study could be related to climatic and geographical
conditions that limit cattle breeding activity, reducing the source of infection
for definitive hosts. Seroprevalence of T. gondii and the positive animal
distribution suggest frequent contamination of grass with felid faeces. In
conclusion, this is the first report of combined seroprevalence for N. caninum,
T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas. Further studies are needed to determine
the potential role of these protozoan infections as cause of abortion in
Argentina as well as presence of these protozoans in llama meat used for human
PMID: 18495344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12. J Vet Intern Med. 2008 May-Jun;22(3):616-29. Epub 2008 May 2.
Risk factors for owner-reported occurrence of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
in the US equine population.
Morley PS, Traub-Dargatz JL, Benedict KM, Saville WJ, Voelker LD, Wagner BA.
Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
BACKGROUND: Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious and often fatal
neurologic disease of horses, but few studies have investigated risk factors.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate operation- and individual-level factors associated with
likelihood of the occurrence of EPM.
ANIMALS: Data were collected as part of a study of the US equine industry from
1,178 operations representing 83.9% of horses and 51.6% of operations with > or
=3 horses in 28 states.
METHODS: Probability-based sampling was used to enroll representative operations
in a cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect information
regarding health and management of horses. A nested case-control study was used
to investigate risk factors among individual horses. Interview data were combined
with climate data, human population density, and opossum regional ecology
categories. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to identify risk factors
for the occurrence of EPM.
RESULTS: Owners reported that 95% of EPM cases included in this study were
diagnosed by veterinarians. Variables associated with EPM occurrence on premises
included opossum regional ecology, reported exposure to small wildlife, climate,
terrain, housing, choice of bedding material, method of storing feeds, equine
stocking density, and primary use of horses. Among individual horses, age was
most strongly associated with disease risk. Associations also were identified
with sex, breed, primary use, and participation in competitions.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Because the risk of EPM occurrence on
operations is closely tied to factors that impact exposure to opossums, their
feces, and their environment, controlling these exposures may be important in
preventing the occurrence of EPM.
PMID: 18466255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
13. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2007 Dec;25(6):466-8.
[Experimental infection of Sarcocystis suihominis in pig and human volunteer in
[Article in Chinese]
Li JH, Lin Z, Du JF, Qin YX.
Guangxi Regional Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanning 530028,
OBJECTIVE: To confirm existence of Sarcocystis suihominis and possible
transmission cycle between human and pigs.
METHODS: Based on the human-pig-human infection cycle of Sarcocystis suihominis,
feces of naturally infected pigs were collected and over 10,000 sporocysts were
received by flotation technique, which were mixed with fodder to infect a normal
pig. Fresh pork meat containing mature sarcocysts was chopped into pieces and
swallowed by a volunteer (the first author of this paper) with about 71,000
sporocysts. Symptoms and development of the parasites after infection were
RESULTS: The volunteer showed abdominal distension in about 5 hours after
infection, with watery diarrhea 13 times from the 8th to 36th hour, vomiting 4
times, chilling and fever with a temperature of 38.5 degrees C, dizziness,
headache, joint and muscle ache, epigastralgia, and anorexia. Un-sporized
sporocysts were found in the faces 10 days after infection and sporocysts
appeared on the 12th day. The average size of sporocysts was 11.9 (8.8-14.5)
microm x 9.2 (7.5-12.5) microm. The infected pig showed a slight anorexia,
fatigue, constipation, hair loosen in 5-8 days after infection, and returned
normal on the 17th day. The average size of the sarcocysts was 299.2 (175-575 )
microm x 62.3 (30-102.5) microm. Size of bradyzoites was 11.5 (9.5-13.5) microm x
4.1 (2.8-5.0) microm. The volunteer was treated with acetylspiramycin for 15 days
(0.2 g/time, 4 times/d) after 46 days of infection, and fecal examination turned
negative 30 days later.
CONCLUSION: There is a man-pig cycle for Sarcocystis suihominis in Guangxi.
PMID: 18441892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
14. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Oct;90(10):2128-35.
The Sarcocystis-cyst containing beef and pork as the sources of natural
intestinal sarcocystosis in Thai people.
Bunyaratvej S, Unpunyo P, Pongtippan A.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol
University, Bangkok, Thailand.
BACKGROUND: Human intestinal sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by two
coccidians, i.e. Sarcocystis fusiformis (syn. S. bovihominis, S. hominis) due to
consumption of raw infected beef and Sarcocystis meischeriana (syn. S.
suihominis) due to consumption of infected raw pork. In 1987, survey of the
macroscopic S. fusiformis cysts in market beef mainly from old water buffalos
aged more than 15 years were commonly observed in Bangkok. In 2005, the
macroscopic cyst was no longer seen in beef of cattle and water buffalo aged less
than three years.
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiological investigation of Sarcocystis spp. infected meat in
Bangkok and Lampang.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples for each of the tongue and beef of cattle and water
buffalo, pork from Bangkok markets and pork of domestic swine from some remote
villages in various subprovinces (Ampurs) in Lampang were obtained for
microscopic examination by H and E and selectively by PAS staining.
RESULTS: The microscopic S. fusiformis cysts were seen in all five specimens of
tongues and ten specimens of muscles of cattle and water buffalo obtained from
fresh-food markets in Bangkok. Ten samples of pork from Bangkok markets revealed
no coccidian infection. The microscopic S. meischeriana cysts were seen in three
specimens of swine muscles collected from two subprovinces in Lampang.
CONCLUSION: The present merozoites in coccidian cysts retrieved from beef and
pork are similar to those previously observed in human intestine. This may
histologically indicate an invasive sarcocystosis by both species leading to a
condition presently known as chronic inflammation of undetermined etiology in
PMID: 18041433 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
15. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007 Mar;38(2):232-8.
The potential usefulness of the modified Kato thick smear technique in the
detection of intestinal sarcocystosis during field surveys.
Tungtrongchitr A, Chiworaporn C, Praewanich R, Radomyos P, Boitano JJ.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol
University, 2 Pranok Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.
A total of 479 stool specimens were collected from rural communities of Ubon
Ratchathani Province, Thailand and examined by two techniques: the modified Kato
thick smear and the direct smear. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini
(14.8%), hookworm (10.2%), Sarcocystis spp (4.6%), Taenia spp (2.9%),
Strongyloides stercoralis (2.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.2%), Echinostoma spp (0.6%),
Ascaris lumbricoides (0.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.2%), Chilomastix mesnili
(0.2%) and Endolimax nana (0.2%) were determined. The morphology of the
Sarcocystis spp sporocysts examined by both procedures looked similar and was
found to be easily recognizable. Among these specimens, 22 cases (4.6%) were
positive for Sarcocystis infection detected by the modified Kato technique,
whereas only one case (0.2%) was detected by both techniques. These differences
were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating that the
modified Kato technique was decidedly more sensitive than the direct smear
procedure in identifying Sarcocystis infection. An epidemiological survey was
conducted in Khon Kaen Province involving 1124 stool samples using the modified
Kato technique. The greatest frequency was Opisthorchis viverrini at 32.0% while
the second highest was Sarcocystis spp at 8.0%. The prevalences of hookworm,
Echinostoma spp, Taenia spp, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis were
2.7, 2.1, 1.0, 0.2 and 0.2%, respectively. Other than opisthorchiasis,
northeastern Thailand may be an endemic area for sarcocystosis. This is the first
report of the applicability and potential usefulness of the Kato thick smear
technique for the diagnosis of Sarcocystis infection in a field survey.
PMID: 17539271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16. J Comp Pathol. 2006 Nov;135(4):249-53. Epub 2006 Oct 25.
Eosinophilic myositis due to Sarcocystis hominis in a beef cow.
Wouda W, Snoep JJ, Dubey JP.
Animal Health Service Ltd, Post Box 9, 7400 AA Deventer, The Netherlands.
A case of eosinophilic myositis (EM) in an 8-year-old beef cow was investigated.
The animal originated from a herd in which a high incidence of the disease had
been observed in slaughtered adult females over a period of 2 years.
Histologically, the lesions in the muscles were characterized as granulomas with
a central core of degenerate eosinophils and remnants of necrotic muscle fibres,
surrounded by a rim of epithelioid cells and fibrous tissue with an infiltrate
consisting predominantly of eosinophils radiating outwards. Degenerate sarcocysts
with a thick (7-9 microm) wall were present in the suppurative centre of most
lesions. Intact sarcocysts with similar morphology were present in adjacent
muscle fibres but without an associated inflammatory reaction. By transmission
electron microscopy the sarcocysts were identified as Sarcocystis hominis, based
on the morphology of villar protrusions of the sarcocyst wall, which were
broad-based and cylindrical, with a blunt distal end, and contained numerous long
microfilaments. Circumstantial evidence indicated a human source of infection,
human faecal material having been spread on the pasture grazed by the cattle. The
findings supported a causal relationship between S. hominis infection and EM in
PMID: 17067618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
17. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006 Aug;36(2):713-25.
Molecular and microscopic techniques for detection of Sarcocystis neurona
sporocysts in fecal samples.
Elsheikha HM, Murphy AJ, Trembley SJ, Mansfield LS, Ghanam MS, el-Garhy MF.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University,
Mansoura 355161, Egypt. firstname.lastname@example.org
Diagnosis of Sarcocystis sp. in the definitive host is generally by microscopic
detection of the sporocysts in feces. This method is insensitive and cannot
differentiate between species because sporocysts lack specific staining criteria.
The hypothesis suggested that molecular techniques provide better alternatives to
classical detection of Sarcocystis sporocysts. The sensitivity of two PCR assays
was compared to one another and to microscopic examination by conventional fecal
flotation and Diamant-Fuchsin staining procedures for detection of sporocysts
spiked into mice feces. PCR1 assay using LSM1 & LSM2 primers that amplified 496
bp of the ssurRNA gene was more sensitive than the PCR2 method using JNB25 and
JD396 primers that amplified 334 bp of a RAPD-derived marker. PCRI gave positive
results with 200 microl of fecal suspension spiked with as little as 5 sporocysts
compared to 75 sporocysts detected by JNB25 & JD396 primers. PCRI was more
sensitive than conventional microscopy. PCR1 or PCR2 followed by sequencing or
RFLP analysis not only detected Sarcocystis sporocysts in feces but also enabled
to ascertain the genotype of the species as S. neurona.
PMID: 16927879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18. Vet Parasitol. 2006 Nov 30;142(1-2):95-101. Epub 2006 Jul 25.
Differential molecular identification of Taeniid spp. and Sarcocystis spp. cysts
isolated from infected pigs and cattle.
González LM, Villalobos N, Montero E, Morales J, Sanz RA, Muro A, Harrison LJ,
Parkhouse RM, Gárate T.
Servicio de Parasitología, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud
Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.
In the present work, the species-specific identification of Taeniid spp.
cysticerci and sarcocystis cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle was
achieved by PCR. In particular: (i) multiplex-PCR derived from HDP2 DNA fragment,
specific for Taenia saginata/Taenia solium; (ii) PCRs and PCR-RFLPs of the rDNA
internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) for the differential
diagnosis of taeniids; (iii) PCR derived from the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing,
specific for Sarcoystis spp. The combined application of these three PCR
protocols provided an unequivocally specific diagnosis of T. saginata, T. solium,
T. hydatigena, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis, and may have
practical application in the identification of calcified degenerating or
morphologically dubious cysts, for example in the slaughter house situation or in
human biopsy samples.
PMID: 16870346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
19. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2006 Mar;77(1):28-32.
Common conditions leading to cattle carcass and offal condemnations at 3
abattoirs in the Western Province of Zambia and their zoonotic implications to
Clinical Studies Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of
Zambia, PO Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia. email@example.com
From a total of 32 717 cattle slaughtered, 183 whole carcass condemnations were
attributable to 9 diseases and conditions, namely, tuberculosis (TB),
cysticercosis, emaciation, generalised lymphadenitis, jaundice, abscesses,
moribund, sarcosporidiosis and odour. Bovine TB was the most important cause of
condemnations (152/183, 83.1%). Bovine cysticercosis and sarcosporidiosis
accounted for 5/183 (2.7%) and 8/183 (4.4%), respectively, while each of the
remaining conditions contributed less. Among the many conditions responsible for
offal/organ condemnations were fascioliasis, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia,
hydatidosis and TB. In terms of number and weight, Fasciola gigantica infections
made livers and lungs the most condemned offals (20.1% and 0.7%, respectively).
Hydatidosis was the cause of 0.9% lung and 0.1% liver losses. Cysticercus bovis
contributed to only 0.05% of all inspected tongues, hearts, and heads. TB was
very rare in heads (0.01%). The financial impact of whole carcasses and offals
condemned during the study period was enormous and deprived livestock farmers of
the much needed revenue and consumers of protein sources. Much or all of the
condemned material that could have been useful was wasted by not being retrieved
for conversion to processed meat, bone meal or pet food. Failure to detect
lesions of potential zoonotic diseases at slaughter poses a health risk to
consumers especially when meat is eaten undercooked.
PMID: 16700473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
20. Vet J. 2006 Mar;171(2):287-94. Epub 2005 Jan 22.
The health of wild red and sika deer in Scotland: an analysis of key
endoparasites and recommendations for monitoring disease.
Böhm M, White PC, Daniels MJ, Allcroft DJ, Munro R, Hutchings MR.
Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.
Vet J. 2006 Mar;171(2):204-5.
Monitoring the health of wildlife populations is important for understanding and
controlling the risk of infections to livestock, humans and/or other wildlife. In
this paper, we analyse the results of surveys of parasites and non-specific signs
of diseases carried out on organs from 638 red and 107 sika deer culled in four
regions of Scotland between 1991 and 1997. Infections of the lung by
Elaphostrongylus spp. were significantly greater in red than sika deer. Older
animals were more heavily infected with Elaphostrongylus spp. and Sarcocystis
spp., and infections with Sarcocystis spp. tended to be heavier in more recent
years. The results suggest that a combination of key indicator parasite species
and non-specific signs of disease may be useful for monitoring the health of
wildlife populations at a national scale. However, they also demonstrate that
such monitoring needs to be long-term, carried out according to standard
protocols and at an appropriate resolution to enable integration with data on
other potentially influential environmental factors.
PMID: 16490711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
21. Infect Genet Evol. 2006 Sep;6(5):352-60. Epub 2006 Feb 20.
A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis
neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.
Asmundsson IM, Dubey JP, Rosenthal BM.
Animal Parasitic Disease Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute,
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture,
Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.
The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined
despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite
clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in
the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination.
In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming
coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus
Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis
neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM).
Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic
chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine
the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis
falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were
clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S.
falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and
genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs
with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation
of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from
disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea
otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with
clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these
presumably neutral genetic markers.
PMID: 16488197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
22. Parasitol Int. 2005 Mar;54(1):75-81.
A taxonomic re-appraisal of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from
the monkey Macaca fascicularis in Yunnan, PR China.
Yang ZQ, Wei CG, Zen JS, Song JL, Zuo YX, He YS, Zhang HF, Attwood SW, Chen XW,
Yang GC, Zhou X, Quan X, Li CY, Han D, Liu AW, Lin P.
Parasitology Department, Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan 650031, China.
The first detection of Sarcocystis nesbitti Mandour, 1969 in the Chinese mainland
is reported and the morphology of the sarcocyst is described in detail. The
parasite was detected in the monkey, Macaca fascicularis, maintained on a monkey
farm in Yunnan Province; the infection may have occurred via faecal contamination
from local rats, mice and/or birds. S. nesbitti was characterized as follows: a
macroscopic sarcocyst, length of the cyst up to 2 mm; cyst wall smooth, thin and
no perpendicular protrusion is seen under the light microscope; border of cyst
wall wavy, primary cyst wall thin (38-65 nm) and invaginated; ground substance
about 0.5-0.76 microm thick with electron-dense granules and concentric spherical
bodies. The cyst wall is described as type 1 by electron microscopy. It is
suspected that S. nesbitti may utilize Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis,
Cercocebus atys, and Papio papionis, as well as human as intermediate hosts. The
taxonomy of S. nesbitti is re-appraised in the light of a consideration of
possible experimental artefacts and examination of the past literature. Evidence
is presented that S. nesbitti may be one of the species infecting humans in South
Asia and that the monkey may be a potential reservoir host.
PMID: 15710555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
23. Presse Med. 2004 Nov 6;33(19 Pt 2):1389-401.
[Systemic vasculitis during parasitosis].
[Article in French]
Service de médecine interne, Hôpital Delafontaine, 2, rue du Docteur Pierre
Delafontaine, 93200 Saint Denis. firstname.lastname@example.org
A RARE EVENTUALITY: Although parasite infections are frequent, observations of
vasculitis related to parasitosis are, however, very rare. REGARDING THE
MECHANISM: The simultaneous occurrence of a parasitosis and vasculitis may be the
consequence of either the direct implication of a parasite observed in the
histological lesions in the onset of alteration in the vascular wall, or of
immunopathological phenomena occuring during the anti-parasite immune response,
or a fortuitous association. THE HUMAN PARASITOSIS IMPLIED: In most cases,
vasculitis associated with parasitosis is an isolated event with varied clinical
aspects. Such cases have been reported in toxoplasmosis, trichinosis,
strongyliasis, ascaridiosis, sarcocystosis, amibiasis, leishmaniosis and
PMID: 15615250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
24. Parasitol Res. 2004 Nov;94(5):354-60. Epub 2004 Sep 30.
The identification of a sequence related to apicomplexan enolase from Sarcocystis
Wilson AP, Thelen JJ, Lakritz J, Brown CR, Marsh AE.
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University
of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease caused by
Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite. S. neurona is also associated with
EPM-like diseases in marine and small mammals. The mechanisms of transmission and
ability to infect a wide host range remain obscure; therefore, characterization
of essential proteins may provide evolutionary information allowing the
development of novel chemotherapeutics that target non-mammalian biochemical
pathways. In the current study, two-dimensional electrophoresis and
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass
spectrometry were combined to characterize and identify an enolase protein from
S. neurona based on peptide homology to the Toxoplasma gondii protein. Enolase is
thought to be a vestigial, non-photosynthetic protein resulting from an
evolutionary endosymbiosis event of an apicomplexan ancestor with green algae.
Enolase has also been suggested to play a role in parasite stage conversion for
T. gondii. Characterization of this protein in S. neurona and comparison to other
protozoans indicate a biochemical similarity of S. neurona enolase to other
tissue-cyst forming coccidians that cause encephalitis.
PMID: 15549383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
25. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):894-902, table of contents.
Sarcocystis spp. in human infections.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural
Resources Institute, Environmental Microbial Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD
20705, USA. email@example.com.
Sarcocystis species are intracellular protozoan parasites with an
intermediate-definitive host life cycle based on a prey-predator relationship.
Asexual stages develop in intermediate hosts after they ingest the oocyst stage
from definitive-host feces and terminate with the formation of intramuscular
cysts (sarcocysts). Sarcocysts in meat eaten by a definitive host initiate sexual
stages in the intestine that terminate in oocysts excreted in the feces. Most
Sarcocystis species infect specific hosts or closely related host species. For
example, humans and some primates are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis hominis
and S. suihominis after eating raw meat from cattle and pigs, respectively. The
prevalence of intestinal sarcocystosis in humans is low and is only rarely
associated with illness, except in volunteers who ingest large numbers of
sarcocysts. Cases of infection of humans as intermediate hosts, with
intramuscular cysts, number less than 100 and are of unknown origin. The asexual
stages, including sarcocysts, can stimulate a strong inflammatory response.
Livestock have suffered acute debilitating infections, resulting in abortion and
death or chronic infections with failure to grow or thrive. This review provides
a summary of Sarcocystis biology, including its morphology, life cycle, host
specificity, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies, for
human and food animal infections.
PMID: 15489353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
26. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2004 Jul;111(7):277-81.
[Parasites in meat: a challenge for veterinarians in meat hygiene].
[Article in German]
Lhafi KS, Mitzscherling TA, Kühne M.
Institut für Lebensmittelqualität und -sicherheit der Tierärztlichen Hochschule
Meat hygiene is an important instrument of preventive public health since the end
of the nineteenth century. The methods used during ante-mortem and post-mortem
inspection are partly quite traditional. This is in particular true for the
identification of parasites in meat. The aim of this review was to present facts
on aetiology, prevalence and importance of meat-borne parasitic hazards. The
capacity and the limits of the ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection for the
identification of parasitic hazards are considered. Further, suggestions for the
improvement of the meat hygiene are given. Cysticercosis, Toxoplasmosis and
Sarcocystosis are exposed in detail. With regard to Cysticercosis, the
integration of serological methods in the inspection procedure could result in a
tenfold improvement of diagnostical sensitivity. With regard to Toxoplasmosis, it
is obvious that meat containing Toxoplasma-cysts may reach the consumer, as
animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii can neither be recognised in the
ante-mortem inspection nor in the meat inspection. Systematical serological
investigations on farm level would allow an appropriate judgement during meat
inspection and minimize the consumer exposure to this parasite. Further, reliable
methods for the detection of Toxoplasma-cysts have to be developed. With regard
to Sarcocystosis, the compulsory inspection of the muscle surfaces to recognise a
"massive infection with Sarcocystis" is very doubtful in its interpretation.
There is a need for suitable microscopic, serological and molecular biological
methods for the detection of Sarcocystis-species and reliable informations on the
seroprevalence of the parasite in slaughtering animals.
PMID: 15366287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
27. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2004 Apr 30;22(2):82.
[Sarcocystis suihominis infection in human and pig population in Guangxi].
[Article in Chinese]
Li JH, Lin Z, Qin YX, Du J.
PMID: 15281446 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
28. J Parasitol. 2003 Aug;89(4):738-43.
Parasitological analysis of Leonese royalty from Collegiate-Basilica of St.
Isidoro, León (Spain): helminths, protozoa, and mites.
Hidalgo-Argüello MR, Díez Baños N, Fregeneda Grandes J, Prada Marcos E.
Departamento de Patología Animal (Sanidad Animal), Facultad de Veterinaria,
Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana, 24071 León, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
The royal burial chamber of what is today the Collegiate-Basilica of St. Isidoro
in León, Spain, built and remodeled between the 10th and 13th centuries and in
the 20th century renamed the Kings' Pantheon, has 13 royal tombs that were opened
in the presence of the Abbot-Prior of the Collegiate to enable a group of
researchers to obtain all possible information from the royal remains. Several
samples were sent to the Parasitology Unit of the Animal Pathology (Animal
Health) Department at the Veterinary Faculty of León (Spain). In all the tombs,
eggs and remains of nonparasitic mites were observed. In a piece of linen cloth
from the bottom of 1 tomb, an Anoplocephala perfoliata egg was found.
Furthermore, 4 mummified bodies were found. In 2 of these, those belonging to
Infantes María and Fernando, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found and in the
latter Trichuris trichiura eggs. We have not found in the literature reviewed any
records of studies of this kind carried out in Spain.
PMID: 14533684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
29. J Parasitol. 2003 Apr;89(2):393-4.
Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
Chen XW, Zuo YX, Hu JJ.
Department of Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming City 650091, People's Republic
of China. email@example.com
A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis
sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from
naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after
inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g)
were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from
buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm
with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from
this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as
S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the
intermediate host for S. hominis.
PMID: 12760663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
30. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002 Dec;33(4):718-9.
Prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in horses in Mongolia.
Fukuyo M, Battsetseg G, Byambaa B.
Kyushu University Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Japanese
Society and Culture, Fukuoka City, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Sarcocystis infection was detected in 93% of horses in Mongolia. Using the
compress method, sarcocysts were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, heart and
tongue in 40 of the 43 horses that were slaughtered at the Makh Impex Meat
Company in Ulaan Baatar in July 1998. The muscle of the tongue showed the highest
rate (97.5%) of infection. The distribution of sarcocysts in the muscles was
positively correlated with horse age; the rate of detection was significantly
lower (p=0.01) in the under 10 year old group than the older group. All horses
were apparently healthy and were slaughtered for human consumption.
PMID: 12757215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
31. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002 Sep;33(3):490-5.
Prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in meat-producing animals in Mongolia.
Fukuyo M, Battsetseg G, Byambaa B.
Kyushu University Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Fukuoka City,
A survey of Sarcocystis infection was conducted in Mongolia between June 1998 and
July 1999. Samples of muscle were taken from the diaphragm, heart, tongue,
esophagus,and intercostal region of cattle, yak, hainag, sheep, horses, and
camels. A muscle compress method was used to determine the prevalence of
infection: cattle 90.0% (27/30), yak 93.3% (28/30), hainag 100% (30/30), sheep
96.9% (753/777), horses 75% (3/4) and camels 100% (5/5). Of the various muscles,
heart was the most commonly infected in cattle (100%), yak (86.7%), and hainag
(100%); tongue was most likly to be infected in sheep (100%) and horses (100%).
PMID: 12693581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
32. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1999;17(1):25-7.
[Observation on the clinical symptoms and sporocyst excretion in human volunteers
experimentally infected with Sarcocystis hominis].
[Article in Chinese]
Chen X, Zuo Y, Zuo W.
Biology Department of Yunnan University, Kunming 650091.
AIM: To investigate the excretion of sporocysts and clinical manifestations in
humans experimentally infected of Sarcocystis hominis.
METHODS: Three volunteers were infected by eating raw beef containing cysts of S.
hominis. One ingested about 1,567 cysts in skeletal muscles of a naturally
infected cattle; two volunteers each ingested about 14,740 cysts from an
experimentally infected water buffalo meat. Fecal examination by zinc sulfate
flotation method was conducted daily since d4 postinfection (pi).
RESULTS: Free sporocysts and oocysts were found in their faeces from d11-40,
d12-23, d10-30 pi, and peaked at d18, d14, d14. All of them presented clinical
symptoms such as abdominal pain, distension, watery diarrhea and eosinophilia 1
wk approximately 4 wk pi and were spontaneously cured within 29 days pi without
taking any medicine.
CONCLUSION: All the experimentally infected persons had gastrointestinal symptoms
and passed sporocysts and oocysts in faeces 10-12 days after infection and
persisted for 11-29 days.
PMID: 12563811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
33. J Parasitol. 2001 Dec;87(6):1459-65.
Occurrence of cattle Sarcocystis species in raw kibbe from Arabian food
establishments in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and experimental transmission to
Pena HF, Ogassawara S, Sinhorini IL.
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculdade de
Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.
Fifty samples of raw kibbe from 25 Arabian restaurants in the city of São Paulo,
Brazil, were examined for the presence of bovine Sarcocystis species, using light
and electron microscopy, and for infectivity to humans. Sarcocysts were found in
all 50 samples. Based on cyst wall structure, S. hominis (94%), S. hirsuta (70%),
and S. cruzi (92%) were identified (mostly as mixed infections). Different raw
kibbe samples, positive for S. hominis in fresh preparations, were offered as a
meal for 7 human volunteers. Six volunteers (85.7%), 2 of whom developed
diarrhea, excreted sporocysts in feces. The prepatent period lasted 10-14 (12 +/-
1.8) days and the patent period lasted 5-12 (8.8 +/- 1.1) days.
PMID: 11780838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
34. J Parasitol. 2001 Aug;87(4):938-9.
Sarcocystis miescheriana infection in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in the
Claveria FG, De La Peña C, Cruz-Flores MJ.
Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University-Manila,
Sarcocystis miescheriana sarcocysts were identified in skeletal muscles of 9
(27%) of 33 swine slaughtered for human consumption. Sarcocysts were 144-180
microm x 20-38 microm in size. Ultrastructurally, the cyst wall resembled the
type 10 sarcocyst wall. The villar protrusions (VP) were 3-4.5 microm long and
0.6-1.2 microm wide and had prominent longitudinally arranged microtubules
extending from the VP tips to the granular layer (=ground substance). The
parasitophorous vacuolar membrane with its underlying electron-dense layer (EDL)
measured 25 nm in thickness. The base of the VP exhibited minute (0.42-0.87
microm) bulblike inpocketings. Each VP had 80-90 microtubules situated underneath
the EDL. The granular layer was 0.5-1.2 microm thick, and contained hairlike
microtubules continuous with those of the VP core. This is the first report of S.
miescheriana in Philippine domestic pigs Sus scrofa.
PMID: 11534668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
35. Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2001 Mar-Apr;(2):157-64.
[Intracellular parasitism and sarcocystosis].
[Article in Russian]
Beĭer TV, Radchenko AI.
Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tikhoretskii pr. 4, St.
Petersburg, 194064 Russia.
The obligatory heterogenous tissue cyst-forming coccidia of the genus Sarcystosis
are regarded as an excellent example of specific coexistence of two organisms,
i.e., the host and parasite. These parasitic protozoans are known as causative
agents of the chronic, often life-threatening disease, sarcocystosis, which still
cannot be effectively controlled. In Sarcocystis, the entire phase of asexual
multiplication was transferred to the intermediate host. Of special interest is
the parasite's ability to persist in this host at the stage of tissue cyst or
sarcocyst. This is a giant meront, in which unidirectional development proceeds
starting from a little differentiated metrocyte, through intermediate cells, and
towards highly differentiated cyst merozoites (gamonts) unable to further divide.
The life span of the sarcocyst depends, to a great extent, on self-regulation
within the cyst itself and on relations between the cyst and its immediate
environment. A totally new field of research into Sarcocystis was initiated by
the discovery that the intracellular parasite damages both cyst harboring and
intact muscle cells, apart from the adjacent connective and nervous tissue. The
previously unknown cytopathological effects of sarcocysts have been described and
characterized. The changes observed within and outside the sarcocysts have been
analyzed in terms of general biological processes: proliferation,
differentiation, and programmed cell death.
PMID: 11357379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
36. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2001 Jan;19(1):29-30.
[Abdominal discomfort and soft stools in a habitual consumer of rare beef].
[Article in Spanish]
Clavel A, Doiz O, Varea M, Morales S, Castillo FJ, Rubio MC, Gómez-Lus R.
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa. Avda. San
Juan Bosco 15, 50009 Zaragoza.
PMID: 11256244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
37. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1998 Dec;23(6):293-302.
Comparison of immunological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of infections
with pathogenic Sarcocystis species in sheep.
Heckeroth AR, Tenter AM.
Institut für Parasitologie, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, Germany.
Sheep may be infected by four species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis tenella and
Sarcocystis arieticanis are pathogenic, Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis
medusiformis are non-pathogenic. The two pathogenic species may cause abortion or
acute disease during the early phase of infection and chronic disease during the
late phase of infection. Thus far, diagnosis of sarcocystiosis has been limited,
because traditional diagnostic tests based on the detection of
Sarcocystis-specific antibodies are only genus-specific and, thus, cannot
differentiate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Sarcocystis species. In
addition, most of these tests can only detect chronic sarcocystiosis. Therefore,
diagnosis of acute sarcocystiosis or Sarcocystis-induced abortion has been based
mainly on post-mortem examination, i. e. after the animal had succumbed to the
disease. Recently, we have established species-specific PCR assays based on
unique ribosomal RNA gene sequences of S. tenella and S. arieticanis. These
assays enable the diagnosis and differentiation of infections with S. tenella and
S. arieticanis in sheep intra vitam during the acute phase of the disease and,
therefore, facilitate for the first time comprehensive studies on the
epidemiology and importance of infections with pathogenic Sarcocystis species in
PMID: 10622625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
38. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Oct;61(4):548-53.
An outbreak of acute eosinophilic myositis attributed to human Sarcocystis
Arness MK, Brown JD, Dubey JP, Neafie RC, Granstrom DE.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services
University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA.
Seven members of a 15-man U.S. military team that had operated in rural Malaysia
developed an acute illness consisting of fever, myalgias, bronchospasm, fleeting
pruritic rashes, transient lymphadenopathy, and subcutaneous nodules associated
with eosinophilia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated levels
of muscle creatinine kinase. Sarcocysts of an unidentified Sarcocystis species
were found in skeletal muscle biopsies of the index case. Albendazole ameliorated
symptoms in the index case; however, his symptoms persisted for more than 5
years. Symptoms in 5 other men were mild to moderate and self-limited, and 1 team
member with laboratory abnormalities was asymptomatic. Of 8 team members tested
for antibody to Sarcocystis, 6 were positive; of 4 with the eosinophilic myositis
syndrome who were tested, all were positive. We attribute this outbreak of
eosinophilic myositis to accidental tissue parasitism by Sarcocystis.
PMID: 10548287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
39. J Parasitol. 1999 Feb;85(1):102-4.
Sarcocystis dubeyi n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) in the water buffalo (Bubalus
Huong LT, Uggla A.
Department of Parasitology and Pathology, College of Agriculture and Forestry,
National University of Ho Chi Minh City, Thu Duc, Vietnam.
Sarcocystis dubeyi n. sp. is proposed for a species forming thick-walled,
microscopic sarcocysts in striated muscular tissues of the water buffalo (Bubalus
bubalis). Sarcocysts of S. dubeyi were found in histological sections of skeletal
muscles and esophagus, but not in heart and tongue, of 8 (13%) of 60 water
buffaloes examined in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Sarcocysts of S. dubeyi were up
to 600 microns long and up to 200 microns wide. The cyst wall was 4.5-9 microns
thick and was composed of tightly packed, cylindrical villar protrusions (Vp)
that had a uniform width of up to 3 microns, a length of up to 8 microns, and a
blunt, often flattened tip. The Vp contained microfilaments but no prominent
electron-dense granules. The definitive host of S. dubeyi was not determined, but
it could possibly be humans or other primates. By the present description, 4
Sarcocystis species are recognized in the water buffalo: the macrocyst-forming
Sarcocystis fusiformis and S. buffalonis and the microcyst-forming S. levinei and
PMID: 10207372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
40. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 1998 Sep;15(5):423-9.
Endocrine modulation of physiological responses to catabolic disease.
Sartin JL, Elsasser TH, Gunter DR, McMahon CD.
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary
Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5518, USA.
Disease or endotoxemia alters the plasma concentrations of anabolic hormones,
particularly growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I). In
general, these hormones are inhibited during the catabolic disease state. A
hypothesis has evolved that anabolic hormones might be useful in patients'
recovery under these and other catabolic circumstances. The treatment of cattle
with GH has provided significant improvement in the physiological response of the
animals to the subsequent injection of bacterial lypopolysaccharide (LPS),
perhaps via inhibition of tumor necrisis factor (TNF) release. However, this
improved response to disease was not observed with animals treated with GH and
infected with one of two parasitic organisms, Sarcocystis cruzi or Eimeria bovis.
Recent attempts with other anabolic hormones, estradiol and progesterone, have
proven remarkably effective in improving the adaptive physiological responses of
calves to either E. bovis infection or to the injection of LPS. All animals
displayed signs of infection, but the intensity and duration of symptoms were
reduced. Although a mechanism is not yet known, there were no effects on TNF;
cortisol; the percentages of lymphocytes expressing CD2, 4, or 8 antigens; or the
production of antibodies.
PMID: 9785046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
41. Vet Res. 1998 May-Aug;29(3-4):289-310.
Protozoan infections (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis spp.)
in sheep and goats: recent advances.
Division of Virology, Moredun Research Institute, International Research Centre,
Scotland, UK. email@example.com
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a serious cause of fetal mortality in
sheep and goats. Oocysts, the parasite stage responsible for initiating
infection, are produced following a primary infection in cats. A primary
infection in pregnant sheep and goats can establish a placental and fetal
infection which may result in fetal death and resorption, abortion or stillbirth.
Diagnosis is aided by the clinical picture, the presence of characteristic small
white necrotic foci in placental cotyledons, the possible presence of a mummified
fetus and on fetal serology and histopathology. Development of the polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) specific for T. gondii may also provide a valuable
diagnostic tool. Measures to control abortion include improved management of farm
cats, fodder and water. Vaccination of sheep with the live vaccine is an
effective preventive measure and the use of decoquinate in feed may be useful in
some situations. Neospora caninum is related to T. gondii and while its asexual
life cycle is similar to that of the latter it is currently not known whether it
has a similar sexual life cycle in a definitive host. Neospora is an important
cause of fetal loss in cattle and parallels that of T. gondii infection in sheep
and goats. While it does not appear to cause frequent losses in these latter
animals, experimental infection is readily induced in them and if initiated
during pregnancy provides a very good model of the bovine infection. Furthermore
clinical signs and pathological lesions in sheep and goats are similar to those
induced in them by T. gondii, although there are subtle histopathological
differences. These changes will aid possible diagnosis as will specific
serological tests such as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and the
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the PCR. Sarcocystis, which exists as
numerous species, undergoes a coccidian-like life cycle with each having a
distinctive definitive (usually carnivore) host which excretes sporocysts into
the environment. Clinical sarcocystiosis is much less commonly diagnosed than
toxoplasmosis and neither is it normally associated with fetal infection or
abortion in either sheep or goats. However, infection is extremely common
throughout the world and follows ingestion of food or water contaminated with
sporocysts. Clinical signs, when seen, include fever, anaemia, inappetance and
weight loss or reduced weight gain. Central nervous signs (hind limb weakness,
ataxia, paresis), acute myopathy and death may occur. Diagnosis is difficult as
infection is so common and clinical signs absent, mild or non-specific. Serology
may be useful in some situations and histopathology/immunohistochemistry is
valuable for confirming the cause of death. Control relies on preventing
contamination of pasture and water with faeces of dogs, foxes and cats or by
controlling access of young susceptible stock to contaminated land. Relatively
little is known of the immunity induced by infection with Sarcocystis spp. but
research indicates that protective immunity does develop and that cell-mediated
mechanisms are probably important. It is likely that sarcocystiosis is
underdiagnosed as a problem and that better diagnostic methods are needed to show
the true extent of the losses caused. Neosporosis on the other hand would appear
not to be so common in sheep and goats. The value of experimental infections in
these animals may be to provide a comparative model of the infection in cattle in
the same way that our understanding of toxoplasmosis in sheep provides a superior
model of human toxoplasmosis.
PMID: 9689743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
42. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere. 1998 Feb;26(1):21-3.
[Greenish discolorations of beef musculature and their assessment according the
meat hygiene regulations. A case report].
[Article in German]
Stephan R, Tholen R, Meier D.
Institut für Lebensmittelsicherheit und -hygiene, Universität Zürich.
In muscular tissue samples from two cows of different origin numerous greenish,
spotlike tissue discolourations were diagnosed as eosinophilic myositis.
Sarcosporidiosis is being suspected as the most likely cause. Factors leading to
such cases of myositis due to sarcosporidiosis which is wide-spread in cattle and
normally inapparent are largely unknown. According to Swiss and German meat
inspection directives beef carcasses with these discolourations have to be
declared as unfit for human consumption. However, during meat inspection such
cases of myositis are problematic to diagnose, because the lesions are only
visible on the cut end of muscle tissue. Hence, they can pass unnoticed through
PMID: 9626743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
43. J Wildl Dis. 1997 Oct;33(4):860-7.
Sarcosporidiasis in rodents from Thailand.
Jäkel T, Khoprasert Y, Sorger I, Kliemt D, Seehabutr V, Suasa-ard K, Hongnark S.
Department of Zoology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
One to six Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the skeletal muscles of 41 (33%)
of 124 wild rodents (Rattus spp. and Bandicota indica) mainly captured in the
central plains of Thailand throughout the year in 1995. Included were S.
singaporensis, S. villivillosi, and S. murinotechis-like cysts all of which
showed a striated cyst wall at the light microscopical level, and Sarcocystis
cymruensis, S. sulawesiensis, and S. zamani which possessed smooth cyst walls.
The ultrastructure of the cyst wall and other morphological characteristics used
to distinguish species are described. By inoculation of muscle cysts from
wild-caught rodents into coccidia-free pythons (Python reticulatus, P. molurus
bivittatus), we confirmed that P. reticulatus is a suitable definitive host for
S. singaporensis and S. zamani in Thailand. Furthermore, we showed by fecal
examination of reticulated pythons collected in the wild and subsequent
experimental infection of laboratory rats that these hosts also are naturally
infected with both species. Sarcocystis cymruensis is reported for the first time
from Southeast Asia. This parasite was prevalent in brown rats (Rattus
norvegicus) and bandicoot rats (B. indica) which were captured near human
habitations; it is likely to be transmitted to rats via cats. The definitive
hosts of S. sulawesiensis and S. murinotechis are unknown. Hence, at least three
Sarcocystis spp. (S. singaporensis, S. zamani, S. villivillosi) are likely to
cycle between snakes and rodents in agricultural areas in Thailand. Among these,
S. singaporensis appears to be the most prevalent species.
PMID: 9391972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
44. Med Trop (Mars). 1997;57(3 Suppl):16-22.
[The fate of parasites of animal origin transmitted to humans].
[Article in French]
Ecole Vétérinaire de Lyon, France.
The fate of a parasite transmitted from an animal to man depends on the ability
of the contaminating agent to reach a place where it can thrive, to find
necessary nutrients, and to resist host defense mechanisms. The purpose of this
study was to evaluate the incidence of transmission of parasites from animals to
man and to determine to what extent transmission is followed by development.
Stenoxenic parasites whose life cycle requires transmission from animals to man
obviously develop in man and then return to animals. These parasites cause
holozoonoses of the cyclozoonosis type. Some euryxenic parasites can develop as
well in man as in animals. These parasites can cause holozoonoses of the
amphixenoses type. Other presumably euryxenic parasites can be transmitted from
animals to man but not vice versa. These parasites are hemizoonoses agents.
Non-transmission back from man to animals can be observed under several
circumstances: incomplete development in man with failure to reach the stage at
which transmission back to animals is possible; full development but with
immaturity or sterility of the elements of dissemination necessary for
transmission back to animals; full development but no way of evacuating elements
of dissemination; full development and evacuation but with failure of elements of
dissemination to survive. In these four cases man constitutes a dead-end for the
parasite. A fifth possibility is that the parasite reaches full development but
transmission back to animals cannot occur because man is not preyed upon by a
carnivorous animal. In this case parasites are potential agents of holozoonoses
and man is a cul-de-sac for the involved parasites.
PMID: 9513174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
45. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1997;90(3):200-4.
[Zoonotic sarcocystosis: from sarcocystic coccidiosis to sarcocystic eosinophilic
[Article in French]
Ecole vétérinaire de Lyon.
This first deals with the taxinomy and general features of the genus Sarcocystis,
which leads to the classification of sarcocystoses and their general
epidemiology. Enteral forms of the sarcocystoses, i.e. sarcocystic coccidioses
are conjured up and their zoonotic aetiology and their differences with other
human coccidioses are emphasized. The main part of the paper is devoted to
exenteral sarcocystoses, that can include two forms: acute, seldom recognized,
and chronic, including eosinophilic myosites. The author discusses the nature of
the parasites involved and the aetiology and epidemiology of the disease.
PMID: 9410261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
46. Semin Gastrointest Dis. 1997 Jan;8(1):33-44.
Gut Coccidia--Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Sarcocystis.
Department of Medical Parasitology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine,
The gut Coccidia are members of a large, varied, and exclusively intracellular
group of protozoan parasites, four species of which (Isospora, Cryptosporidium,
Cyclospora, and Sarcocystis) are human pathogens. The first three, but
particularly Cryptosporidium parvum, have moved from medical curiosities to major
problems with the coming of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
epidemic, but are now known to also cause disease in the immunocompetent patient.
They are easy to acquire and difficult to remove from the environment and, in the
case of cryptosporidiosis, impossible to treat properly. Further research into
many aspects of the biology of these organisms is urgently needed.
PMID: 9000500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
47. Pathology. 1996 Aug;28(3):281-2.
Diagnosis of human sarcocystis infection from biopsies of the skeletal muscle.
Mehrotra R, Bisht D, Singh PA, Gupta SC, Gupta RK.
Department of Pathology, MLN Medical College, Allahabad, India.
Sarcocystis is an uncommon parasitic infection. We report four cases that
presented with lumps, pain in the limbs or a discharging sinus of unknown
etiology. Microscopic examination of the excised tissue in all cases showed
characteristic cysts of the sarcocystis parasite. A discussion of the
identification and recognition of this uncommon infection from muscle biopsies is
PMID: 8912363 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
48. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1996 Aug;26(2):393-400.
Serological diagnosis of extraintestinal Sarcocystosis.
Habeeb YS, Selim MA, Ali MS, Mahmoud LA, Abdel Hadi AM, Shafei A.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.
The present study was carried out on eighty patients attending Zagazig University
Hospitals. Forty cases suffered idiopathic cardiac diseases (28 with
cardiomyopathy, 8 with myocarditis & 4 with valvular lesions) and forty cases
suffered idiopathic rheumatic diseases (30 with musculoskeletal complaints and 10
with myositis). Sera were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) using Sarcocystis
fusiformis antigen in order to detect the role of Sarcocystis in initiation of
these diseases. Twenty positive toxoplasmic sera and sera from twenty normal
individuals were considered as control group. The sera of the investigated cases
were tested against Toxoplasma gondii antigen to exclude it as one of the
causative agents of these idiopathic lesions. No statistical difference was found
between IFAT and ELISA in diagnosis of sarcocystosis (P < 0.05). Also, there was
no cross reaction between Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma. This study showed that
Sarcocystis can be considered as one of the possible causes of some idiopathic
PMID: 8754648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
49. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996 Mar;27(1):43-6.
Intestinal sarcocystosis in Thai laborers.
Wilairatana P, Radomyos P, Radomyos B, Phraevanich R, Plooksawasdi W,
Chanthavanich P, Viravan C, Looareesuwan S.
Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol
University, Bangkok, Thailand.
To determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis and other intestinal parasites in Thai
laborers who were going abroad for work, stool examinations of 362 asymptomatic
laborers were studied. The four most frequently parasites found in stool were
Sarcocystis sp (23.2%), Opisthorchis viverini (40.3%), hookworm (21.5%), and
Strongyloides stercoralis (14.1%). Giardia intestinalis (5.2%), Entamoeba coli
(1.7%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Blastocystis hominis (4.1%), Echinostoma sp
(3.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%), Taenia sp (1.7%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%),
and Enterobius vermicularis (0.3%) were present at low rates. Sarcocystis were
frequently found in male laborers (83.3%) (p < .01). The laborers from
northeastern Thailand (n = 278) had a higher prevalence (26.6%) of Sarcocystis
infection (p < .01). This study shows that Thai laborers, particularly from
northeastern Thailand, are commonly infected with intestinal parasites. The high
prevalence rates of Sarcocystis and other intestinal parasites in this study were
indicative of the local habit of eating raw beef and pork, poor living
conditions, and low levels of hygiene in Thai laborers. Sarcocystosis could be a
significant food-borne zoonotic infection in Thailand.
PMID: 9031398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
50. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1996 Mar;43(1):55-8.
Prevalence of sarcocysts in livestock of northwest Ethiopia.
Woldemeskel M, Gebreab F.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia.
A survey of Sarcocystis was conducted in cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys and
chickens. A total of 671 haematoxylin-eosin (H-E) stained muscle tissue samples,
including diaphragm, masseter, cardiac and oesophageal musculatures were
examined. Additionally, cardiac muscle samples from 40 fetuses were included. An
infestation rate of 93% in sheep, 82% in cattle, 81% in goats, 16.6% in donkeys
and 6.6% in chickens was noted. The infestation rate of diaphragm, masseter,
cardiac and oesophageal musculatures seems to be similar. None of the 40 fetal
heart muscle samples from bovine, ovine, caprine and donkey fetuses examined
harboured Sarcocystis. An attempt was made to demonstrate the possible occurrence
of human Sarcocystis and a negative result was obtained. The possible impact of
Sarcocystis on animal health in Ethiopia is discussed.
PMID: 8919969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
51. Parasitol Res. 1996;82(3):193-9.
Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives.
Institute for Parasitology, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany.
The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming
coccidia in humans and animals are summarized. In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic
care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of
immunodeficiency, is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant
drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or with clindamycin,
or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For reasons of tolerability in human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, after 3 months of therapy a
maintenance treatment on 2 days a week has recently given very positive results.
In cats, monensin and toltrazuril are effective against the intestinal
developmental stages of Toxoplasma gondii, the later drug affecting to a
reasonable extent the extraintestinal stages as well. Attempts to treat
neosporosis and sarcocystosis remain in the initial stages. The same is true for
cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. A number of highly effective drugs are
available for prophylaxis of poultry coccidiosis. Increasing problems with
resistance have led to new treatment schemes such as shuttle and rotation
programs. In addition to a new polyether, semduramycin, a benzeneacetonitrile
derivative (diclazuril) has been developed in recent years. After three decades a
new drug (toltrazuril), a symmetrical triazinone derivative, has brought
improvements for therapy and/or metaphylaxis in coccidiosis of poultry and
mammals. The increasing possibilities for vaccination may result in new aspects
for the use of chemotherapeutics, i.e., new combinations and/or shuttle or
PMID: 8801548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
52. Vet Res Commun. 1996;20(3):243-53.
The distribution pattern of Sarcocystis species, their transmission and
pathogenesis in sheep in Fars Province of Iran.
Oryan A, Moghaddar N, Gaur SN.
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University,
Of 1362 sheep examined during two years in Fars Province of Iran, 786 (57.7%)
were positive for Sarcocystis spp. The prevalence was significantly higher (p <
0.05) in animals owned by nomadie Assyrians (67.95%) than in those owned by local
people (41.86%). More of the animals above 2 years age were infected (69.98%)
than young ones (30.02%). Females had a higher prevalence of infection (61.07%)
than males (38.93%) but most of the males were younger. There was no variation in
the infection rate during spring, summer or autumn, but it was low in winter. The
species observed were Sarcocystis gigantea, predominantly in oesophagus, S.
medusiformis, mainly in diaphragm, S. tenella in the oesophagus, diaphragm,
tongue and heart, and S. arieticanis in the oesophagus, tongue and occasionally
in the diaphragm. In transmission studies, the prepatent period for S. gigantea
and S. medusiformis and for the two microscopic species was 11-13, 10 and 8-12
days, respectively. The infection could not be transmitted to hamsters and
guinea-pigs. The macroscopic species were almost non-pathogenic but were
responsible for economic losses because of rejection of carcases or parts thereof
at slaughter. The microscopic species caused tissue damage to the affected
organs, resulting in haemorrhages, mononuclear infiltration and necrotic changes.
PMID: 8739523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
53. J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Aug;98(4):273-6.
Eosinophilic myositis resulting from sarcocystosis.
Van den Enden E, Praet M, Joos R, Van Gompel A, Gigasse P.
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
Muscle sarcocystosis is a parasitic infection acquired by ingestion of sporocysts
of Sarcocystis species. A case is described where symptoms of fever, chronic
myositis and eosinophilia were present. Diagnosis was made via muscle biopsy.
Improvement and cure coincided with treatment with cotrimoxazole. A limited
review of human muscle sarcocystosis and an outline of the gaps in the knowledge
of this infection is presented.
PMID: 7636925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
54. J R Soc Health. 1995 Jun;115(3):178-85.
Food-borne parasitoses in Malaysia epidemiological assessment and research needs.
Dept of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
Food-borne parasitic zoonoses have emerged as a major public health problem in
many countries and are posing a medical challenge. They are not only important
from the economic point of view but also because of their severe sequelae. In
Malaysia, these parasitoses are a tip of an iceberg problem. The article
documents all the food-borne parasitic zoonoses reported in Malaysia. An
epidemiological assessment of the diseases with research needs is highlighted.
PMID: 7643345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
55. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1995 May 6;125(18):890-8.
[Cyst-forming Coccidia: Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis].
[Article in German]
Institut für Parasitologie, Medizinischen Fakultät, Universität Bern.
The most important cyst-forming coccidian parasites in human and veterinary
medicine belong the genera of Toxoplasma, Neospora and Sarcocystis. Toxoplasma
gondii shows its clinical relevance in congenital infections and opportunistic
infections in immunodeficient patients. In veterinary medicine the parasite is
predominantly the cause of important economic loss in livestock production.
Neospora causes diseases resembling toxoplasmosis; neosporosis is one of the most
important causes of bovine abortion in the US. Neospora caninum leads to myositis
and paralysis in dogs. The potential implication of Neospora in
toxoplasmosis-like diseases in humans is not yet known. Sarcocystis is usually a
relatively harmless intestinal parasite in humans. Recent data from tropical
areas suggest that man can also become an intermediate host for certain
Sarcocystis species, which potentially represents a source of opportunistic
infection and disease in areas with increasing HIV prevalence. In veterinary
medicine, Sarcocystis causes muscle diseases and also abortion or
myeloencephalitis with lethal outcome in certain animal species.
Molecular-epidemiological investigations have resulted in a new understanding of
biological and population-genetic mechanisms relevant to the disease. Recently
developed molecular techniques, such as transfection in protozoan parasites, are
presently used not only to elucidate molecular-pathogenetic events in the course
of disease, but also to prepare potential new immuno-therapeutic tools for future
vaccination against infection or disease.
PMID: 7770750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
56. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1995;13(4):295-9.
[Article in Chinese]
PMID: 8732085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
57. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1995;19(5 Pt 2):B119-24.
[New parasitoses and news in parasitology].
[Article in French]
Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Réanimation Neuro-Respiratoire, CHU de
PMID: 8522091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
58. Parasitol Res. 1995;81(4):359-60.
Scanning electron microscopy of the human muscular sarcocyst.
Wong KT, Yusoff M.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,
PMID: 7624297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
59. Vet Parasitol. 1994 Dec;55(4):267-77.
Specific amplification of Sarcocystis cruzi DNA using a randomly primed
polymerase chain reaction assay.
MacPherson JM, Gajadhar AA.
Health of Animals Laboratory, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Sask.,
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to randomly amplify polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) was used to differentiate between Sarcocystis cruzi DNA and bovine DNA.
This assay was also exploited to identify a S. cruzi DNA fragment which may be
useful as a probe. Five primers ranging in length from 16 to 20 nucleotides were
analyzed for their ability to direct the amplification of either bovine or
parasite DNA fragments. Two primers, TGA and TGD, preferentially amplified bovine
DNA in a mixture of S. cruzi and bovine DNA. The primers TGB and TGF each
directed the amplification of S. cruzi DNA instead of bovine DNA. Assays using
TGF and S. cruzi DNA resulted in the production of a unique 0.8 kilobase (kb) DNA
fragment. This fragment was not amplified from two other closely related
coccidian species, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis campestris. When the 0.8 kb
DNA fragment was purified and used as a DNA probe, it only hybridized with DNA
from S. cruzi. The results of this study indicate that this DNA fragment may be
developed into a useful DNA probe for S. cruzi, and that the RAPD-PCR method may
be successfully exploited for the rapid development of DNA probes for parasites
and other organisms.
PMID: 7725622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
60. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 May-Jun;88(3):364.
Human Sarcocystis infection.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jul-Aug;87(4):496.
PMID: 7974694 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
61. J Parasitol. 1994 Apr;80(2):327-30.
Ultrastructure of the human skeletal muscle sarcocyst.
Wong KT, Pathmanathan R.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
The ultrastructure of the human skeletal muscle sarcocyst found in Malaysia is
reported. Sarcocyst-positive, formalin-fixed tongue tissues were postfixed in
osmium tetroxide. The primary cyst wall consisted of a thin membrane supported by
osmiophilic material that was interrupted regularly by vesicle-like
invaginations. Although there were no cytophaneres, stubby protrusions of the
primary wall were observed. These protrusions were accentuated by dense,
curvilinear material externally. The primary wall was wavy over about half the
cross section of the cyst. The granular ground substance underlying the primary
wall occasionally contained hitherto undescribed coiled microtubular structures.
Branching septa extended from the ground substance into the cyst, separating
mature merozoites into compartments. A few peripheral metrocytes and many
laminated myelin figure-like structures, probably degenerating merozoites, were
found. Although the human muscular sarcocyst has the same basic ultrastructure as
those found in other animals, the stubby protrusions and coiled microtubular
structures in the ground substance have not been described previously in nonhuman
PMID: 8158479 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
62. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1994 Apr;178(4):613-22; discussion 622-3.
[An example of holozoonosis: human coccidiosis due to Sarcocystis spp].
[Article in French]
Service de Parasitologie Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Maison-Alfort.
PMID: 8076196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
63. Parasitol Res. 1994;80(2):138-40.
Light microscopic and three-dimensional morphology of the human muscular
Wong KT, Clarke G, Pathmanathan R, Hamilton PW.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,
Established criteria for morphological typing of sarcocysts was applied to a
large series of cases of human skeletal muscle sarcocystosis in Malaysia to
determine the type of sarcocyst present. We also wanted to test the general
usefulness of this classification and to determine if there are any new cyst
types. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction was done to see if the sarcocyst
has a distinct 3-D morphology. A total of 66 sarcocysts from 21 cases of human
muscle sarcocystosis obtained from a previous prevalence study were examined.
Tissue sections (5 microns thick) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and
studied under the light microscope. For 3-D reconstruction, an image analyser was
used to align and reconstruct the sarcocyst after microscopic images had been
captured with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All the cysts best fit into
the type 4 category. This classification is generally useful, although cyst wall
characteristics and zoite size appear to be the most reliable criteria for
classification. The cyst width averaged 77 microns (range, 30-137.5 microns).
Cyst walls were smooth, had no cytophaneres and were less than 1 micron thick. No
secondary cyst wall or surrounding inflammation was evident. Numerous cyst
merozoites with diameters averaging 1 micron filled the cyst lumen. Although
septa were not apparent, in many cysts, zoites were arranged in a unique,
curvilinear fashion that suggested their presence. 3-D reconstruction showed the
sarcocyst to be a long, tortuous "cylinder" with no branching or other
PMID: 8202453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
64. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jul-Aug;87(4):496.
Apparent absence of Sarcocystis infection in human tongue and diaphragm in
Wong KT, Leggett PF, Heatley M.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 May-Jun;88(3):364.
PMID: 8249098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
65. Trop Geogr Med. 1993;45(4):191.
Human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia.
Wong KT, Pathmanathan R.
Trop Geogr Med. 1992 Jan;44(1-2):102-8.
PMID: 8236476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
66. Recenti Prog Med. 1992 Dec;83(12):719-25.
[Isosporiasis and sarcocystosis. The current findings].
[Article in Italian]
Dionisio D, Santucci M, Comin CE, Di Lollo S, Orsi A, Gabbrielli M, Milo D,
Rogasi PG, Meli M, Viganò S.
Divisione di Malattie infettive, Policlinico di Careggi, Firenze.
A review on infections by Isospora belli and Sarcocystis spp. both in healthy and
in AIDS patients is done on the basis of literature and personal data. In this
view a special focus is made on isospora belli infection in AIDS because of its
high recurrence after successful attack therapy. Consequently the most recent
protocols for maintenance and attack therapy in these patients are reported. At
the end, concerning ultrastructural pathology, the features of some Isospora
belli developing stages are described by means of electron microscopy on duodenal
biopsy specimens from a patient.
PMID: 1494712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
67. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1992 Dec;22(3):611-6.
Investigation of Sarcocystis as a causative agent in cardiac disease.
Azab ME, el-Shennawy SF.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo,
Sera from 56 cases with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis and 40 cases with
different types of valvular diseases were tested, using the indirect fluorescent
antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of antibodies to Sarcocystis. None of the
cases showed specific reaction where the IFAT was negative at the cut off titre
1:8 in all the cases.
PMID: 1431279 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
68. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Nov-Dec;86(6):631-2.
High prevalence of human skeletal muscle sarcocystosis in south-east Asia.
Wong KT, Pathmanathan R.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
The prevalence of human skeletal muscle sarcocystosis in Malaysia was determined
by serial examination of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of tongue
tissues obtained from consecutive, routine autopsies of subjects aged 12 years or
more. Of 100 tongues examined, 21% were found to contain Sarcocystis; 66 cysts
were found. The number of cysts per case varied from 1 to 13. In one case, 5
cysts were found in a single tissue section. The age range of positive cases was
from 16 to 57 years (mean 37.7 years). Prevalence did not differ with regard to
race, sex or occupation. The prevalence of human muscular sarcocystosis in our
study was higher than that reported elsewhere. Preferential localization of
Sarcocystis in tongue or head and neck and/or genuinely high prevalence in
south-east Asia are possible explanations for this observation.
PMID: 1287922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
69. Med J Aust. 1992 Jan 20;156(2):136.
Is sarcocystosis common in Sydney?
Troedsen C, Pamphlett R, Collins H.
PMID: 1736055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
70. Can J Vet Res. 1992 Jan;56(1):41-6.
Ultrastructural and transmission evidence of Sarcocystis cruzi associated with
eosinophilic myositis in cattle.
Gajadhar AA, Marquardt WC.
Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523.
Skeletal muscle, diaphragm, tongue, esophagus and heart of beef carcasses that
were condemned for eosinophilic myositis and those that were unaffected were
collected at an abattoir in Colorado and studied to determine the involvement of
Sarcocystis spp. All affected carcasses contained similar granulomatous lesions
with adjacent infiltrations of leukocytes. Intact or fragments of sarcocysts were
found within 32 of 363 granulomas, and whole sarcocysts were present in nearby
unaffected muscle cells. Light and electron microscopic examinations revealed
that sarcocysts, affected or unaffected by cellular response in condemned
carcasses, as well as those found in unaffected carcasses, were consistent with
those of S. cruzi. Transmission experiments confirmed that S. cruzi were present
in all carcasses, and that dogs, but not cats, were the definitive hosts. The
results of pepsin-HCl digestion assays showed that unaffected carcasses that were
approved for human consumption generally contained more infective parasites than
carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis. This study provides
evidence to support the suggestion that dogs, rather than cats, and unaffected
rather than eosinophilic myositis-affected carcasses, have greater potential for
contributing to the perpetuation of eosinophilic myositis in the cattle industry.
PMID: 1586892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
71. Trop Geogr Med. 1992 Jan;44(1-2):102-8.
Three cases of human Sarcocystis infection with a review of human muscular
sarcocystosis in Malaysia.
Pathmanathan R, Kan SP.
Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
Trop Geogr Med. 1993;45(4):191.
Three cases of muscular sarcocystosis from West Malaysia are reported. The
morphological features of the parasites from these three cases are similar to the
eight cases previously reported from this country. A review of this total of
eleven cases of muscular sarcocystosis showed that they were all incidental
findings, where man acted as intermediate hosts of as yet unknown Sarcocystis
spp. These cases of muscular sarcocystosis were probably zoonotic in origin and
associated with close contact with definitive hosts (both domestic and wild
animals) thus permitting the contamination of food and drink with sporocysts shed
by these definitive hosts. These infections were probably acquired locally as
most of the subjects were born in Malaysia and none had ever left the country to
stay elsewhere. Eight of the eleven cases reported were associated with
malignancies, especially of the tongue and nasopharynx.
PMID: 1496700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
72. J Med Assoc Thai. 1992 Jan;75 Suppl 1:71-5.
Sarcocystis infection and actinomycosis in tumorous eosinophilic enterocolitis.
Bunyaratvej S, Visalsawadi P, Likitarunrat S.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol
University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Intramural masses were resected from jejunum and ileocecal portion of a
49-year-old, female patient with partial gut obstruction. Histopathological
examination indicated the masses to be tumorous eosinophilic enterocolitis.
Recent and late development phases of Sarcocystis in relation to bradyzoite
infection have been observed and considered to be responsible for eosinophilic
inflammation. Concomitant intestinal actinomycosis, known to produce tumorous
lesion without eosinophilia, appears as an attractive natural model in producing
tumorous eosinophilic enterocolitis. Pertaining to parasitic development, it is
suggested that persisting sporulated oocyst may undergo spontaneous excystation
in the host's intestinal wall, along with complex sporogony.
PMID: 1402486 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
73. J Med Assoc Thai. 1992 Jan;75 Suppl 1:38-44.
Combined Sarcocystis and gram-positive bacterial infections. A possible cause of
segmental enterocolitis in Thailand.
Bunyaratvej S, Unpunyo P.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol
University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Between 1981 and 1990, 22 intestinal specimens surgically resected due to
segmental enterocolitis were collected and examined. Grossly, the specimens were
classified into 3 groups 1) Acute inflammation with hemorrhage and necrosis 2)
Constrictive lesion 3) False diverticulum with perforation. Mostly, there was
unisegmental involvement, distributed in jejunum, ileum and ileocolon.
Microscopically, small parasitic structures, interpreted to be unconventional
excystation stage of Sarcocystis hominis, (Railliet and Lucet, 1891) Dubey 1976,
were present on the luminal border and within the crypt-lining epithelial cells.
At the ulcerated area, tissue invasion by Gram-positive bacteria were always seen
and considered as second pathogen. Source of the parasite was likely from
cyst-containing beef available in markets, (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis)
along with consumption of undercooked beef. Antismooth muscle antibody, IgG
class, with the titer ranging from 1:16-1:256 were detected in 45 per cent of the
patients. This is considered as autoimmunity against intestinal smooth muscle
damaged previously from subclinical inflammatory condition. Present information
suggests a long-standing existence of Sarcocystis in the patients' intestine,
associated with Gram-positive bacterial infection, as the mechanism producing
segmental enterocolitis found in the Central region.
PMID: 1402481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
74. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 1991 Dec 27;85(24):1179-84.
[Autochthonous parasitic zoonoses--a current problem. 1: General aspects and
[Article in German]
Hiepe T, Buchwalder R.
Institut für Parasitologie, Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Humboldt-Universität
PMID: 1776298 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
75. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:78-84.
Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in West Germany.
Department of Parasitology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
The present status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in West Germany is
characterized by a relatively high frequency of toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis and
Taenia saginata infections. From empirical data it can be estimated that 4% of
the German population become infected per year by Toxoplasma gondii as well as by
Sarcocystis species (S. hominis, S. suihominis). The number of T. saginata
infected persons is reckoned at 900,000, which is equal to an average prevalence
of 1.5%. Due to meat inspection and to modern methods of breeding and keeping
pigs trichinellosis and Taenia solium infections have become rare diseases.
According to eating habits there are only sporadic cases of fascioliasis and
anisakiasis. Whether Diphyllobothrium latum and Opisthorchis felineus are still
endemic, is unknown; it seems that the influx of refugees from areas of high
endemicity never created new foci in West Germany.
PMID: 1822942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
76. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:337-9.
Epidemiological assessment of parasitic zoonoses in Malaysia.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Jalan
Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Food-borne parasitic zoonoses are emerging as major public health problems in
most countries because they are widespread and pose a medical challenge. Not only
are they important from an economic standpoint, but they also cause severe
sequalae in all those affected. The extent of parasitic zoonoses in Malaysia is
considered a "tip of the iceberg" problem. Cases of zoonotic diseases, like
porocphaliasis, sarcocystosis, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis,
echinostomiasis, and gnathostomiasis are traced and documented. An epidemiologic
reassessment of methods is suggested to determine the extent of these parasitoses
PMID: 1822920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
77. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:16-22.
Food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the Philippines.
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna.
A number of food-borne parasitic zoonoses have been recorded in the Philippines
and include echinostomiasis, artyfechinostomosis, fascioliasis, heterophydiasis,
carneophallosis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, taeniasis,
echinococcosis/hydatidosis, diphyllobothriosis/spirometrosis and sparganosis,
intestinal capillariasis, gnathostomiasis, angiostrongylosis, toxoplasmosis and
sarcosporidiosis. Some are now rarely observed while others continue to be public
health problems. Many are endemic in certain areas of the Philippines because of
the habit of consuming raw or partly cooked fish, snails, crustaceans, and meat.
Artyfechinostomosis caused by Artyfechinostomum malayanum is a recently
recognized problem in the Philippines and is reported in man and pigs. Human
infection results from ingesting raw or partly cooked the freshwater snail,
Bullastra cumingiana which serves as second intermediate host. More information
on the epidemiology, transmission including the animal hosts involved locally are
still needed for some of these problems. Human infection with many of these
diseases can be prevented by changing the food habits, but this requires
aggressive health education campaigns.
PMID: 1822878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
78. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:138-41.
Sarcocystis and sarcocystosis in India.
Department of Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science, Punjab Agricultural
University, Ludhiana, India.
Sarcocystosis, in recent times has been recognized as a disease in animals and
man. With the attention of scientists on this problem all over the world, work on
prevalence, morphology, life cycle, transmission, pathogenesis, immunology,
biochemistry and prophylaxis of this parasite has been initiated in domestic
animals in India.
PMID: 1822872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
79. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:129-34.
Review of sarcocystosis in Malaysia.
Kan SP, Pathmanathan R.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala
Sarcocystis is a tissue coccidian with an obligatory two-host life cycle. The
sexual generations of gametogony and sporogony occur in the lamina propria of the
small intestine of definitive hosts which shed infective sporocysts in their
stools and present with intestinal sarcocystosis. Asexual multiplication occurs
in the skeletal and cardiac muscles of intermediate hosts which harbor
Sarcocystis cysts in their muscles and present with muscular sarcocystosis. In
Malaysia, Sarcocystis cysts have been reported from many domestic and wild
animals, including domestic and field rats, moonrats, bandicoots, slow loris,
buffalo, and monkey, and man. The known definitive hosts for some species of
Sarcocystis are the domestic cat, dog and the reticulated python. Human muscular
sarcocystosis in Malaysia is a zoonotic infection acquired by contamination of
food or drink with sporocysts shed by definitive hosts. The cysts reported in
human muscle resembled those seen in the moonrat, Echinosorex gymnurus, and the
long-tailed monkey, Macaca fascicularis. While human intestinal sarcocystosis has
not been reported in Malaysia so far, it can be assumed that such cases may not
be infrequent in view of the occurrence of Sarcocystis cysts in meat animals,
such as buffalo. The overall seroprevalence of 19.8% reported among the main
racial groups in Malaysia indicates that sarcocystosis (both the intestinal and
muscular forms) may be emerging as a significant food-borne zoonotic infection in
PMID: 1822870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
80. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:11-5.
Current public health status of some food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Malaysia.
Division of Medical Ecology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur,
PMID: 1822865 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
81. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991 Dec;22 Suppl:142-3.
Sarcocystis in caribou (Rangifer tarandus terraenorae) in Newfoundland.
Khan RA, Fong D.
Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Canada.
Prevalence of species of Sarcocystis in muscle of 36 caribou, Rangifer tarandus
terraenorae, shot in Newfoundland, Canada, was 53%. A greater percentage of
infected animals were obtained from the central part of the island. The highest
concentration of microscopic sarcocysts, 1/mm2 of tissue, was observed in a
5-year old animal. Although widely distributed throughout the body, cysts were
more prevalent in the tongue and diaphragm. The potential of Sarcocystis in
caribou as a food-borne disease organism in man cannot be overlooked in view of
its prevalence in meat and its widespread consumption, when lightly cooked, in
PMID: 1688046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
82. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 1991 Nov;40(4-5):204-8.
[Sarcocystis species in Vietnamese workers].
[Article in Slovak]
Straka S, Skraciková J, Konvit I, Szilágyiová M, Michal L.
Katedra infektológie a epidemiológie LF UK, Martin.
The authors give an account of the finding of sporocysts of the Sarcocystis spp.
in 14 Vietnamese apprentices from a total of 1228 examined (1.1%) who came to
Central Slovakia in the course of 18 months in 1987-1989. The mean period of
sporocyst excretion was 49.2 days. The positive subjects did not report
gastrointestinal complaints despite mixed intestinal parasitoses. The subjects
were from the north eastern part of the country from Hanoi-Haiphong areas and
they did not report that they ate raw meat. The authors evaluate the diagnostic
value of different coprological methods whereby they found the highest detection
rate in faecal smears examined by Heine's method. The authors draw attention to
the fact that the diagnosis of sporocysts of human coccidiae calls for personal
diagnostic experience as they may escape attention or be mistaken for cysts of
other intestinal protozoa.
PMID: 1838711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
83. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 1991 Feb;13(1):29-32.
[Field survey of sarcocystis infection in the Tibet autonomous region].
[Article in Chinese]
Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine,
Fecal specimens of 926 persons from Duilongdeqing, Milin and Linzhi counties of
Tibet were examined by the zinc sulfate flotation method. The prevalences of
Sarcocystis hominis in the three counties were 20.5%, 22.5% and 22.9%
respectively (P greater than 0.05), with an average of 21.8%, and those of
Sarcocystis suihominis were 0, 0.6% and 7.0% respectively (P less than 0.01). No
significant difference in infection rate was found between different age or sex
groups. Sarcocystis was detected in 42.9% of beef specimens from the market.
Obviously, sarcocystis infection in Tibetans is usually caused by eating raw or
undercooked beef or pork. The infected cases were generally asymptomatic, 9/10
and 5/5 of cases showed negative stool examination one month after being treated
by sulfadiazine or finidazole respectively.
PMID: 1831698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
84. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 1990 Nov;6(3):655-70.
Coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis in sheep and goats.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University
College of Veterinary Medicine, Pullman.
The protozoan diseases, coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis, are important enteric
diseases of sheep and goats, resulting in diarrhea, inefficient weight gains, and
occasionally death. Coccidiosis is a widespread, serious economic disease
affecting animals who are preweaned, recently weaned, or in unsanitary,
stressful, or crowded conditions, as well as after entering feedlots. The Eimeria
species in sheep and goats are relatively host specific. Control is accomplished
through sanitation and by incorporating one of the modern coccidiostats, such as
lasalocid or decoquinate, in feed or salt to ensure an intake of approximately 1
mg of drug per kg of body weight per day for at least 30 consecutive days.
Prevention and control of coccidiosis results in significantly greater weight
gains and production, whereas disease with or without treatment is likely to
result in inefficient production and economic loss to the producer.
Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, is primarily a disease of
lambs and kids less than 30 days of age and is usually a milder disease than
coccidiosis. Infective oocysts are passed in feces and are transmitted by oral
ingestion. Oocysts readily infect a variety of animals, including humans.
Cryptosporidiosis is a prevalent disease in neonatal ruminants and in humans.
Effective treatments are not available, but because the disease is usually mild
and self-limited, supportive care, primarily hydration, is important. Control is
strict sanitation and quarantine of sick animals. Disinfection of contaminated
housing with ammonia or formalin will kill the oocysts. The cyst-forming coccidia
diseases, toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis, utilize two hosts in their life
cycles: sheep or goats and carnivores. Abortions and reproductive failures are
major manifestations of disease. Control is through elimination of carnivore
feces from the premises through management.
PMID: 2245367 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
85. Aust N Z J Med. 1990 Oct;20(5):705-7.
Sarcocystis infection of human muscle.
Pamphlett R, O'Donoghue P.
Department of Pathology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
A 31-year-old man with fatigue and muscle aches was found to have protozoan cysts
within the most painful muscle upon microscopic examination of biopsy material.
Electron microscopic studies revealed the ultrastructural characteristics of the
cysts to conform to those of the genus Sarcocystis. This report represents the
first ultrastructural study of human tissue infection with Sarcocystis, which may
be a rare cause of muscle aching in humans.
PMID: 2126729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
86. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1990 Jun;20(1):319-25.
Ultrastructure of the cyst wall of S. lindemanni with pathological correlations.
Abdel Mawla MM.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo.
Electron microscopy of skeletal muscle biopsy from a case of human sarcocystosis
revealed a new cyst type of S. lindemanni. The sarcocyst appeared large having a
thick cyst wall with evident septa extending into the cyst and,
characteristically, broad branched cauliflower like protrusions extending into
the pericystic zone. This cyst type appeared to be highly pathogenic. In addition
to the complete myofibrillar lysis of the infected muscle-fibre, there were
delamination of the neighbouring myofibres, disruption of the sarcomeric
orientation with dearrangement and bending oft he Z bands and loss of the T and L
myofibrillar pattern in the pericystic zone. Features of myositis such as the
presence of abundant lysosomal structures, myofibrillar disarray and glycogen
formations were detected. These cytopathogenic signs were obviously attributed to
the structural criterion of the cyst wall. The findings not only invalidate the
concept that pathological conditions associated with human sarcocytosis are
accidental, but also stress the value of electron microscopy in inducing relevant
typing of sarcocysts on basis of their morphologically expressed pathogenic
PMID: 2110229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
87. J Parasitol. 1990 Feb;76(1):59-68.
Pathology of experimental Sarcocystis falcatula infections of canaries (Serinus
canarius) and pigeons (Columba livia).
Smith JH, Neill PJ, Dillard EA 3rd, Box ED.
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University, College
Sarcocystis falcatula is an apicomplexan parasite with a broad range of avian
intermediate hosts. The pathology and pathogenesis of infection with this
parasite has been studied experimentally in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus
undulatus). The present study quantitatively examines the pathology of this
parasite in canaries (Serinus canarius) and pigeons (Columba livia) and compares
it with that found in budgerigars. The general progression of merogony and cyst
formation is similar qualitatively to that seen in budgerigars, but it differs
quantitatively. The principal site of precystic merogony is in pulmonary
endothelial cells. The magnitude of pulmonary meront burdens (at similar
inoculated dosages) varies in different intermediate host species. Merogony is
less persistent than in budgerigars. Among the various species of birds, the
magnitude of precystic merogony correlates differently with the magnitude of
skeletal muscle cyst burdens. The distribution of cyst burdens among various
muscles also differs. The composition of inflammatory cells differs among various
avian species' response to S. falcatula. Pathologic changes quantitatively
parallel tissue meront burdens (except possibly in the liver of canaries),
resulting in an interstitial pneumonitis, hepatitis, and mild inflammatory
lesions of other organs.
PMID: 2105389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
88. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1990;8(1):50-3.
[Studies on man-cattle-man infection cycle of Sarcocystis hominis in Yunnan].
[Article in Chinese]
Lian Z, Ma J, Wang Z, Fu L, Zhou Z, Li W, Wang X.
Dali Institute of Schistosomiasis Control and Research, Yunnan.
The present paper reports on the results of an experimental study on
man-cattle-man infection of Sarcocystis hominis, found in Yunnan Province. About
ten thousand sporocysts collected from the feces of persons naturally infected
with Sarcocystis hominis were fed to a calf, which was dissected 150 days later.
Numerous cysts of Sarcocystis hominis were found in the cardiac and skeletal
muscles. By light microscopy, the cyst wall of fresh preparation showed numerous
thick, finger-like projections, with maximum length of 7.9 microns. By electron
microscopy, the cyst had a regularly folded, with primary wall forming
palisade-like protrusions. Numerous sharp invaginations found in the protrusions
were sawtooth-shaped, covering the whole surface of the protrusions. No fine
fibrils were observed within the zone of ground substance beneath the primary
cyst wall. Two rhesus monkeys were fed with beef infected with Sarcocystis
hominis and sporocysts and oocysts were found in their feces 29 and 31 days
later, the patent period of sporocyst excretion being 5 and 7 days, respectively.
The senior author had taken voluntarily 60 g beef of the experimentally infected
calf, and presented clinical symptoms such as anaemia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea,
fatigue and dizziness on d3 post infection with sporocysts and oocysts found in
the feces on d8. The patent period of sporocyst excretion was more than 42 days.
The mean size of 50 sporocysts was 11.90 +/- 0.04 x 15.88 +/- 0.03 micron and
that of 50 oocysts, 15.56 +/- 0.05 x 19.76 +/- 0.04 micron. On d50 he took
acetylspiramycin tablets, the initial dose being 0.4 g, followed by 0.2g qid. for
15 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 2114230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
89. J Immunoassay. 1990;11(2):177-98.
Radioimmunoassay for bovine tumor necrosis factor: concentrations and circulating
molecular forms in bovine plasma.
Kenison DC, Elsasser TH, Fayer R.
Ruminant Nutrition Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.
Antisera against recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor (rbTNF) were produced
in rabbits immunized with rbTNF in Freund's complete adjuvant (F314) and used in
a double antibody radioimmunoassay to measure plasma TNF. Assay standards were
rbTNF. Iodination of rbTNF and chromatography on G-50 Sephadex with 50 mM EDTA,
0.1% BSA, 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 resulted in labelled rbTNF which was
greater than 97% TCA precipitable (specific activity of 37.5 microCi/micrograms).
F314 (1:80,000 dilution) bound 21% of 125I-rbTNF in a non-equilibrium assay at 4
C. Separation of bound and free 125I-rbTNF was accomplished by precipitation with
goat anti-rabbit IgG prepared with 6% polyethyleneglycol (mw = 8000). Minimum
detectable TNF was 4 pg/assay tube. Matrix effects of plasma were minimal.
Recovery of rbTNF from plasma was linearly (recovered TNF = .932 * added TNF =
.12; r = .99). Displacement curves of increasing amounts of plasma from calves
challenged with endotoxin to effect an increase in endogenous TNF were parallel
to the rbTNF standard curve. F314 failed to crossreact with any other cytokines
tested except human TNF (less than 1%). Neither recombinant nor native bovine TNF
significantly interacted with antisera for TNF of human or murine origin. Plasma
TNF was acutely elevated in calves infused with endotoxin. Changes in plasma TNF
were determined in samples from calves with chronic parasitic infection.
Endogenous plasma TNF existed as a monomer with a molecular weight of 17,000, and
was not bound to any plasma carrier protein. These data indicate that a specific
RIA for bTNF capable of detecting changes in in vivo TNF levels has been
PMID: 2112161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
90. Lancet. 1989 Apr 8;1(8641):791.
Sarcosporidiosis revealed in sputum.
Lancastre F, Delalande A, Deluol AM, Matrat C, Georges E, Roux P.
PMID: 2564602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
91. J Parasitol. 1988 Oct;74(5):875-9.
Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in cattle: lesions and ultrastructure
Dubey JP, Fayer R, Speer CA.
Zoonotic Diseases Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville,
Five calves inoculated orally with 10(5)-10(6) sporocysts of Sarcocystis hominis
from human feces were necropsied 10, 18, 24, 111, and 222 days postinoculation
(DPI). Calves became febrile (greater than 40-41 C) between 10 and 24 DPI and
developed mild anemia (packed cell volumes were reduced by 40% of initial values)
between 29 and 57 DPI but otherwise remained clinically normal. Focal hepatitis,
mesenteric lymphadenitis, and myocarditis were seen in calves at 10, 18, and 24
DPI. No stages of the parasite were found at any of these times except for a few
merozoites in macrophages associated with myocardial lesions in the calf
necropsied 24 DPI. Mature sarcocysts at 111 and 222 DPI were up to 950 microm
long and their walls were up to 6 microm thick. They were found only in skeletal
muscles. One immature sarcocyst was seen in the myocardium of the calf at 222
PMID: 3138399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
92. Parazitologiia. 1988 Jan-Feb;22(1):3-13.
[Current conception of the Sarcosporidia (Sarcocystis, Eimeriidae, Sporozoa,
Apicomplexa): their morphofunctional organization, life cycle and practical
[Article in Russian]
Advances in sarcosporidian research within the latest decade are critically
reviewed and analysed in respect to some recent cytological findings of the
author and her colleagues on the subject. Three rather than two morpho-functional
cell types (metrocytes and merozoites) are distinguished within the sarcocyst,
the third one being the intermediate cell. Division by endodyogeny in the cyst of
Sarcocystis is very likely confined to the latter cell type. The pattern of
nuclear chromatin and the constancy in DNA value per nucleus in the cystic
merozoites, revealed by flow cytometry, is rather indicative of their
incapability of dividing within the cyst, i.e. in the intermediate host. This
enabled us to consider these merozoites as homologs of coccidian gamonts. The
obvious differences between cysts and cystic stages in Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma
may account in part for the rare, if any, reported cases of congenital
sarcocystosis in the intermediate host.
PMID: 3128765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
93. Med J Malaysia. 1987 Sep;42(3):212-4.
Two cases of human sarcocystosis in East Malaysia.
Pathmanathan R, Kan SP.
PMID: 3147362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
94. Vet Parasitol. 1987 May;24(3-4):157-68.
The prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis in beef cattle in New Zealand.
Böttner A, Charleston WA, Pomroy WE, Rommel M.
Muscle tissue from the oesophagus and diaphragm of 500 beef cattle slaughtered in
New Zealand was examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of
cysts isolated from muscle samples. All cattle were infected with Sarcocystis;
based on light microscopy of cysts, 98% had thin-walled Sarcocystis cruzi cysts
and 79.8% had thick-walled (Sarcocystis hirsuta/Sarcocystis hominis) cysts. Cysts
were also collected for electron microscopy and transmission experiments.
Thick-walled cysts could not be distinguished as S. hirsuta or S. hominis by
light or electron microscopy. Thick-walled cysts were fed to three cats and one
human volunteer; one cat shed sporocysts but not the human volunteer. Electron
microscopy of the cysts revealed many features that have not been described
PMID: 3113040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
95. Vet Parasitol. 1987 Apr;24(1-2):35-45.
The structure and identity of macroscopically visible Sarcocystis cysts in
Böttner A, Charleston WA, Hopcroft D.
Macroscopically visible Sarcocystis spp. cysts isolated from the skeletal muscle
of slaughtered cattle were examined by light- and electronmicroscopy.
Transmission experiments involving cats, dogs and a human volunteer were also
carried out. The cysts could only be transmitted to cats which establishes them
with a high degree of certainty as Sarcocystis hirsuta. The cyst wall (including
protrusions) ranged from 3.3 to 7.0 micron in thickness and the individual cyst
wall protrusions from 1.2 to 2.6 micron in width. Transmission and scanning
electronmicroscopy revealed previously undescribed features of the cyst wall. It
appears that, with increasing age, the cyst wall protrusions become larger and
develop a highly irregular surface. Their attachments to the cyst wall are
slender and widely spaced indicating that growth of the cyst continues without
the formation of new protrusions. Within the protrusions the fibrils become
disorganised and numerous osmiophilic granules appear. It is evident that major
changes in the structure of sarcocysts can occur with age.
PMID: 3109109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
96. J Wildl Dis. 1987 Jan;23(1):86-91.
Diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern Alberta.
Kingscote BF, Yates WD, Tiffin GB.
Specimens from 28 wapiti (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in
southwestern Alberta in 1984. Various tests were performed to detect infections
and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in
wapiti. Serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis
(25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine
virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza
type 3 (13%). No serological evidence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus,
Brucella, Anaplasma, bluetongue virus, or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus was
found, nor were any lesions of vesicular diseases, necrotic stomatitis or
nutritional myopathy evident. Focal interstitial nephritis and sarcocystosis were
diagnosed histologically in 40% and 75%, respectively, of the wapiti tested. The
prevalence of giant liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) was 50% and of lungworms
(Dictyocaulus viviparus) 32%. Leptospiral serology on cattle in the area did not
indicate that wapiti or cattle were a serious source of infection to each other.
The giant liver fluke was the parasite most likely to be amplified by wapiti for
cattle. Within the limits of this study, the results indicated that wapiti in the
Waterton area do not pose a disease threat to the cattle with which they range,
but periodic observational studies in these wapiti would be a useful means of
early detection of any changes in the interspecies relationship.
PMID: 3029443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
97. S Afr Med J. 1986 Sep 27;70(7):436.
Misdiagnosis of sarcocystosis as giardiasis.
Bush JB, Markus MB.
PMID: 3094171 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
98. J Protozool. 1986 Feb;33(1):114-21.
Morphological and biochemical correlates in the characterization of Sarcocystis
O'Donoghue PJ, Adams M, Dixon BR, Ford GE, Baverstock PR.
Isoenzyme electrophoretic techniques were applied to the characterization of
seven Sarcocystis spp. that had been identified by conventional morphological
studies. Cystozoites were harvested from macroscopic cysts from sheep, cattle,
and mice and from microscopic cysts from sheep, cattle, and goats. Soluble
cystozoite extracts were subjected to cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis and
characterized at 15 of the 39 enzyme loci examined. Genetic relationships among
isolates were examined by simple phenetic clustering. Two different morphological
types of macroscopic cysts from sheep, identified as S. gigantea (syn. S.
ovifelis) and S. medusiformis, consistently differed at 40% of the loci examined.
Such genetic divergence confirms their separate morphotypic classification. Both
differed from microscopic cyst isolates from sheep at 87% of the loci examined;
however, two different morphotypes of microscopic cysts were found in the sheep
sampled (thick-walled and thin-walled cysts). Until sufficient numbers of each
type can be isolated and examined separately, both were regarded as belonging to
the species S. tenella (syn. S. ovicanis). Macroscopic and microscopic cysts from
cattle consistently differed at 80% of the loci thereby supporting their separate
classification as S. hirsuta (syn. S. bovifelis) and S. cruzi (syn. S.
bovicanis), respectively. Isolates from goats (microscopic cysts identified as S.
capracanis) differed from S. tenella and S. cruzi at 20% and 47% of the loci,
respectively. All macroscopic cyst isolates from the various host animal species
(including S. muris from mice) differed from each other at nearly all loci.
Isoenzyme electrophoretic techniques therefore provided genetic evidence
supporting the classification of these various Sarcocystis spp. by their
PMID: 3083101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
99. Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1986;4(1):47-9.
[Clinical analysis and treatment of 55 cases of intestinal sarcosporidiosis].
[Article in Chinese]
Li WT, Zhou ZB, Lian ZQ, Xu CG, Zuo YX, Chen FQ.
PMID: 3100090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
100. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1986 Jan;29(1):87-90.
Sarcocystis infection in man (a case report).
Lele VR, Dhopavkar PV, Kher A.
PMID: 3096885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
101. Med Hypotheses. 1986 Jan;19(1):27-39.
A review of the sheep-multiple sclerosis connection.
Murrell TG, O'Donoghue PJ, Ellis T.
This paper reviews a notion that the prevalence of multiple sclerosis is high in
global areas where sheep populations are concentrated. Pilot studies are reported
to serum antibodies in humans to three sheep diseases; focal symmetrical
encephalomalacia (FSE), maedi visna and sarcocystis. In MS patients and controls
antibodies were not found to the epsilon neurotoxin of the FSE organism,
Clostridium welchii type D and to a caprine retrovirus that is closely related to
maedi-visna virus. However, 34% of MS and control patients had antibodies to the
protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp., tissue cysts of which contain a powerful
neurotoxin, sarcocystin. It is suggested that epidemiological MS prevalence rates
for country areas of southern Australia require further study along with an
examination for the prevalence of MS in vegetarians.
PMID: 2871478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
102. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1985 Sep;43(3):296-302.
[Muscular sarcosporidiosis: report of a case].
[Article in Portuguese]
Kouyoumdjian JA, Tognola WA.
A case of sarcosporidiosis in a 29 year-old woman is presented. The clinical
picture showed a definitive myopathic pattern with symmetrical proximal weakness
of shoulder and pelvic girdle and also weakness on neck flexors; the facial
muscles were intact and she denied dysphagia. The histological findings after a
muscle biopsy obtained from left deltoid muscle showed many round cysts within
the muscle fibres without any surrounding inflammatory reaction. The cysts
diameters varied from 30 to 500 micra and the length from 300 micra to 3
millimeter (Miescher's tube). The radially striated membrane could be seen in
some cysts but there was some doubt because it could represent the remaining of
the peripheral muscle fibre. We could not find spores inside the cysts. Besides
the largest cysts there were muscle fibre hypertrophy. The authors concluded on
the diagnosis of sarcosporidiosis because of the presence, diameter and length of
cysts; some remarks are made on the only other parasite that could be confused
with Sarcocystis sp: Toxoplasma gondii.
PMID: 3937512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
103. In Pract. 1985 Sep;7(5):158-60.
Sarcocystosis of domestic animals and humans.
PMID: 3932221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
104. Dan Med Bull. 1985 Aug;32(4):228-30.
Sarcosporidiosis--an overlooked zoonosis. Man as intermediate and final host.
Trichinoscopical investigation in 1971 revealed a prevalence rate of Sarcocystis
infection of 2.8 percent in 49,000 sows and boars, and 0.67 percent in 60,000
bacon pigs. The investigation revealed ten percent infected stocks, showing that
sarcosporidiosis is ubiquitous. Trichinoscopical examination of 112 specimens of
human muscle tissue revealed four cases of sarcocystis infection corresponding to
3.6 percent-i.e., the rate of infection was comparable to that found in sows and
boars. Man, when acting in the role of the final host, often exhibits severe
symptoms of indigestion. Sarcocystis infection in the intermediate host may cause
abortion. Could this happen in human cases as well? The fact that man acts as an
intermediate as well as a final host indicates that sarcosporidiosis is a
PMID: 3930158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
105. Rev Pediatr Obstet Ginecol Pediatr. 1984 Apr-Jun;33(2):183-8.
[A new digestive disease in children: sarcosporidiosis].
[Article in Romanian]
PMID: 6429821 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
106. Histopathology. 1983 Sep;7(5):783-7.
Sarcocystosis in man: a report of two cases.
Agarwal PK, Srivastava AN.
Two cases of sarcocystis infestation in living humans are reported. Both
presented with discharging sinuses; one on the lower extremity, the other
gluteal. Microscopical examination of excised sinus tissue revealed
characteristic cysts of the parasite. In none of the cases was the parasite's
presence previously suspected. The significance of this parasite is discussed in
relationship to these and previously reported cases.
PMID: 6414925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
107. Angew Parasitol. 1982 Nov;23(4):185-9.
[Sarcosporidia findings in chopped meat for consumption].
[Article in German]
In a limited area 400 fresh samples of minced beef and minced pork were examined
trichinoscopically for sarcocysts within a period of 6 months. In 102 samples
(25.5%) the parasites were proved. Out of 200 samples of pork 18.5% were positive
with an average intensity of 2.38 sarcocysts, out of 200 samples of beef 32.5%
were positive with an average intensity of 2.91 sarcocysts. The proportion of
sarcocysts in the 4 kinds of minced meat examined was calculated on the
assumption of a constant distribution. The effect on human health of
sarcosporidians is discussed in the light of the literature. Some measures to
control this parasitosis are suggested.
PMID: 6819789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
108. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 1982 Sep;31(5):283-5.
[Additional findings in intestinal coccidial infections in man].
[Article in Slovak]
Giboda M, Cerná Z, Beno P.
PMID: 6215994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
109. Adv Parasitol. 1982;20:293-468.
Current concepts on the biology, evolution and taxonomy of tissue cyst-forming
Tadros W, Laarman JJ.
Department of Parasitology, University of Amsterdam.
PMID: 6821527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
110. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982 Jan;31(1):36-41.
Human intestinal sarcosporidiosis: report of six cases.
Bunyaratvej S, Bunyawongwiroj P, Nitiyanant P.
Specimens of resected small intestine from six patients aged 3 to 70 years with
acute enteritis contained sexual forms of sarcosporidia. Histopathologically, the
diagnoses were either segmental eosinophilic enteritis or segmental necrotizing
enteritis. The presence of sarcosporidia in market beef (Bos indicus), and the
patients' habit of eating the beef uncooked in the form of chili-hot dishes,
suggest that the species is an ox-man parasite similar to Sarcocystis hominis
(Railliet and Lucet, 1891) Dubey, 1976. Presence of numerous Gram-positive
bacilli in segmental necrotizing enteritis suggests an interplay between two
etiological agents in producing the hosts' inflammatory responses. Five patients
recovered after resection, but one died due to extensive necrosis of the
intestinal wall and leakage at the site of anastomosis. Only conventional
antibiotics were given after the operations. None of the five surviving patients
has had recurrent enteritis for at least 1 year.
PMID: 6800273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
111. Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol. 1981 Oct-Dec;40(4):361-3.
Observations on a case of chronic myositis due to Sarcosporidia.
Bonciu C, Petrovici M, Panaitescu D.
PMID: 6803738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
112. J Protozool. 1981 Feb;28(1):10-6.
The chemotherapy of protozoal infections of man.
PMID: 6788942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
113. South Med J. 1980 Oct;73(10):1380-3.
Necrotizing vasculitis and Sarcocystis: a cause-and-effect relationship?
McLeod R, Hirabayashi RN, Rothman W, Remington JS.
We have described a patient with an unusual infection with Sarcocystis and a
necrotizing vasculitis with subcutaneous nodules, and have discussed the
possibility of a cause-and-effect relationship between these two entities and the
available diagnostic methods and therapeutic measures.
PMID: 6776634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
114. ZFA (Stuttgart). 1980 Jun 10;56(16):1109-36.
[Parasitic zoonoses in Germany].
[Article in German]
PMID: 6774501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
115. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 1980 May-Jun;73(3):259-65.
[Incidence and clinical aspects of intestinal coccidiosis in a tropical medicine
[Article in French]
Deluol AM, Mechali D, Cenac J, Savel J, Coulaud JP.
The microscopic investigation of 3 500 faecal samples with a method of
concentration combining the ether treatment and flottation, has allowed to spot 5
cases (out of 700) of isosporosis (Isospora belli) among subjects coming all from
the tropical area and showing an occasionally serious symptomatology which has
been treated by tinidazole. Besides 2% samples were infested by Sarcocystis
hominis. The subjects affected were also from tropical origin, but did not
present clinical disorders directly to be attributed to this parasite. These
observations permit to review the last bibliography and to make a parasitological
and clinical review in the field of coccidiosis.
PMID: 6784940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
116. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1980 Feb 15;176(4):299-302.
Update on bovine toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis, with emphasis on their role in
Stalheim HV, Fayer R, Hubbert WT.
PMID: 6766918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
117. Wiad Parazytol. 1980;26(4-5):389-92.
[Problems of diagnosis of human intestinal sarcosporidiosis].
[Article in Polish]
PMID: 6806986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
118. Immun Infekt. 1979 Nov;7(5):170-7.
[Sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystis suihominis) in man (author's transl)].
[Article in German]
Kimmig P, Piekarski G, Heydorn AO.
Eleven medical students and six members of the Institute of Medical Parasitology,
University of Bonn participated in a meal with raw pork of an experimentally
Sarcocystis suihominis infected pig. During the first two days the test persons
suffered from the same symptoms as a previous group (see Piekarski et al., 1978).
The severity of the symptoms was related ito certain degree to the quantity of
the pork comsumed, but the individual reaction varied considerably; one test
person with a higher amount of meat remained healthy. Apparently, only
excessively high quantities of infected meat lead to severe symptoms. Lower
dosages cause a protracted course of the disease. In general, the Sarcosporidia
infection produces a transitory disease which quickly disapprears without
PMID: 120308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
119. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1979 Sep;28(5):819-44.
Sarcocystis in man: a review and report of five cases.
Beaver PC, Gadgil K, Morera P.
Sarcocystis was identified in biopsy specimens of skeletal muscle from two adults
in Singapore and one in Bombay, and in muscle obtained at autopsy from an adult
in Uganda, and in the heart of a child in Costa Rica. Review of case reports
revealed that in seven reported cases, including three reported by Lindemann,
non-parasite objects were misinterpreted as sarcocysts; in four instances
organisms of undetermined classification were described, and in 35 cases true
sarcocysts were observed. Among the sarcocysts seen in the 40 cases (35 old, 5
new), seven morphological types were recognized, each representing one to several
different species, all of which are zoonotic and none of which can be designated
Sarcocystis lindemanni. Among the four types of sarcocysts found in skeletal
muscle, three closely resembled a corresponding species found commonly in
monkeys: one from a man in Uganda corresponding to a species in Ceropithicus
talapoin, forms from India resembling one or two species in Macaca mulatta, and
forms from Southeast Asia resembling a species in Macaca fascicularis. Among
three types of sarcocysts found in the human heart, one resembled a species
commonly seen in the heart of cattle. Of the 40 Sarcocystis infections in man, 13
probably were acquired in Southeast Asia, 8 in India, 5 in Central or South
America, 4 each in Africa and Europe, 3 in USA, 1 IN China and 2 in unknown
localities. Associated conditions include muscle soreness or weakness in 7 cases,
subcutaneous swellings in 5, eosinophilia in 2, and periarteritis or
polyarteritis nodosa in 2 cases. However, evidence of pathogenicity of the mature
sarcocyst is inconclusive.
PMID: 114067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
120. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1979 Jul-Aug;21(4):207-15.
[Additional information on Sarcocystis bovicanis, Heydorn, Gestrich, Mehlhorn and
Rommel 1975 (S. fusiformis, Railliet 1897), in Bolívar State, Venezuela].
[Article in Spanish]
Godoy GA, Volcán GS, Medrano CE.
PMID: 120978 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
121. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1979 Jul;28(4):634-42.
Light and electron microstructure of a Sarcocystis sp. from the Malaysian
long-tailed monkey, Macaca fascicularis.
Kan SP, Prathap K, Dissanaike AS.
The ultrastructure of the cyst wall and zoites of a species of Sarcocystis from
the skeletal muscles of a naturally-infected Malaysian long-tailed monkey, Macaca
fascicularis, is described in detail. The wavy, electron-dense primary cyst wall
is thin (55 nm) and invaginated. Cytophaneres are absent. The ground substance
contains electron-dense granules and bundles of parallel, fibrillar elements in
some areas. Thin trabeculae are present. The zoites measure 1.2 X 4.7 microns and
have an interior conoid, 22 subpellicular microtubules, 50-60 micronemes, 4-6
rhoptries, and a posteriorly situated nucleus. Some ultrastructural aspects of
the cyst wall and the zoites of this parasite resemble those of Sarcocystis
species of the moonrat, rhesus monkey, tamarin, and baboon. The light microscopic
appearance of this species from M. fascicularis also bears some resemblance to
that of parasites from the four cases of human Sarcocystis reported in Malaysia.
The cyst in all these human cases were thin-walled, with no cytophaners. Although
the final hosts of these species of Sarcocystis are not known, it is quite
possible that man, monkeys, and perhaps the moonrat (an insectivore) may serve as
common intermediate hosts for one or several species of Sarcocystis.
PMID: 111569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
122. Z Parasitenkd. 1979 Jun 13;59(1):15-20.
Transmission of Sarcocystis suihominis from humans to swine to nonhuman primates
(Pan troglodytes, Macaca mulatta, Macaca irus).
Fayer R, Heydorn AO, Johnson AJ, Leek RG.
Sporocysts of Sarcocystis suihominis obtained from human feces were used to
infect swine. Heart, tongue, and skeletal muscle from experimentally infected and
noninfected control swine were fed via stomach tube to nonhuman primates
including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and
cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca irus). All primates fed infected swine tissues shed
sporocysts beginning 13 to 15 days postinfection and were still shedding
sporocysts at the conclusion of the experiment, 30 days postinfection. Rhesus and
cynomolgus monkeys were fed infected swine tissues a second time and shed
sporocysts. All primates remained in good health throughout both experiments and
exhibited no unusual clinical signs as a result of infection.
PMID: 113949 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
123. Zentralbl Bakteriol B. 1979 Mar;168(2):83-96.
[Current zoonoses from the food hygiene point of view (author's transl)].
[Article in German]
Of the numerous zoonoses part of which are reportable, according to the Federal
Communicable Diseases Act, the food hygienist attributes topicality at present to
salmonellosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis (T. saginata),
trichinellosis, and sarcosporidiosis. In salmonellosis, combating is directed to
breeding and keeping of Salmonella-free flocks, poultry offering favourable
conditions for this purpose. Moreover, one tries to decontaminate feeds through
certain pelleting machines with the aid of friction heat or by admixing propionic
acid. In brucellosis, the possibility of infection by tourism, but also that
through ingestion of imported dairy products (like soft cheese) play a certain
role. Instruction of tourists and advising foreign labour from endemic areas are
essential contributions to combating. Another important infection source of
toxoplasmosis is infected raw pig meat. As the agent does not survive freezing
temperatures under certain conditions, the decontamination procedure is
particularly suitable. In pregnancy advising, the role of raw pig meat for
development of congenital toxoplasmosis should be clearly explained. In
trichinellosis, apart from the traditional examination by the trichinoscope, the
modified digestion procedure using pepsin as a digestive fluid was successful.
Moreover, it is suitable for detecting weakly infected swine. The importance of
systematic examinations of all domestic and wild pigs became evident only
recently in 1977, when in Bavaria an epidemic of trichinellosis occurred
following the ingestion of undetected Trichinella containing wild pig meat.
According to most recent knowledge on the cycle of development of sarcosporidia,
the studies showed that the species Sarc. bovihominis and suihominis were
pathogens for human beings. Quite apart from necessary supplementary
examinations, the freezing procedure would here too, warrant an effective
protection for the raw meat consuming population.
PMID: 113956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
124. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1979;33(6):819-30.
[Experimental infection in man and monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus) by
sarcosporidian cysts of cattle and swine].
[Article in German]
Hiepe F, Hiepe T, Hlinak P, Jungmann R, Horsch R, Weidauer B.
Reported in this paper is experimental sarcosporidial infection of man and lower
primates (grass monkey). The courses of infection were followed up by
coprological and serological tests. Oral-alimentary administration of 100
Sarcocystis (S.)-fusiformis cysts obtained from cattle muscle caused patent
infection in man. Gastro-intestinal symptoms developed in one of the probands,
between five and seven days after infection. No sporocysts were detectable from
the stools of seven probands who had consumed 200 g each of commercially
available minced pork which contained small amounts of Sarcocystis miescherania
villi. Rise in antibody to Sarcocystes following infection was detected however,
by means of indirect fluorescence antibody reaction (IFAR). Gastrointestinal
complaints were reported by one of the probands, one day after infection. No
sporocysts were detectable from the stools of four grass monkeys, following
oral-alimentary administration of 50 or 25 S. miescherania cysts, but rise in
antibody to S. miescherania was recorded in these cases. Those grass monkeys
which had received 50 cysts responded by exhibiting, after infection, severe
clinical phenomena with intestinal signs and symptoms of the central nervous
PMID: 121795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
125. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1979;92(23):457-64.
[Sarcosporidia of domestic animals and of man].
[Article in German]
Rommel M, Heydorn AO, Erber M.
PMID: 121238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
126. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(3):346-7.
Antibodies to Sarcocystis in human sera.
PMID: 112732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
127. Veterinariia. 1979 Jan;(1):49-55.
[Sarcocystis infection in animals].
[Article in Russian]
Zasukhin DN, Vel'iaminov KS, D'iakonov LP.
PMID: 105456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
128. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1978 Sep;9(3):452-3.
The fourth case of Sarcocystis infection in man in Malaysia.
Prathap K, Dissanaike AS.
PMID: 107599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
129. Immun Infekt. 1978 Aug;6(4):153-9.
[Clinical, parasitological and serological investigations in sarcosporidiosis
(sarcocystis suihominis) of man (author's transl)].
[Article in German]
Piekarski G, Heydorn AO, Aryeetey ME, Hartlapp JH, Kimmig P.
Eight medical students ate for a test raw meat from a pig experimentally infected
with sporocysts of Sarcocystis suihominis. The meat had been officially
controlled before and was found free of Trichinella and qualified for
consumption. 6 to 24 hours after the meal all persons suffered from acute
clinical symptoms, above all diarrhoea and vomiting, coldness and sweating which
decreased, however, within 12 to 24 hours. Clinical-chemical investigations made
during this time suggested an acute infection combined with an exsiccosis; the
specificity of the infection, however, could only be established by serological
methods and by microscopical demonstration of sporocysts of the agent. The
pathogenetic relations are discussed.
PMID: 98426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
130. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1978 Jul;27(4):837-9.
Apparent absence of Sarcocystis and low prevalence of Trichinella in artificially
digested diaphragm muscle removed during post-mortem examination at a Sacramento
(California) medical center.
Theis JH, Ikeda RM, Ruddell CR, Tay S.
Diaphragm samples taken from 297 humans at autopsy over a 20-mo period were
artificially digested and the digestate was examined for Sarcosystis and
Trichinella. No infection with Sarcocystis was found while three infections with
Trichinella were discovered.
PMID: 99061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
131. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1978 Mar;69(3):332-6.
[Isospora hominis (Sarcocystis porcihominis?)--the first nonimported case in
Czechoslovakia (author's transl)].
[Article in Slovak]
Giboda M, Rakár J.
PMID: 415805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
132. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med. 1978;22:159-93.
Sarcocystis and sarcocystosis in domestic animals and man.
PMID: 104559 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
133. Adv Parasitol. 1978;16:43-91.
The sarcosporidia (Protozoa, Sporozoa): life cycle and fine structure.
Mehlhorn H, Heydorn AO.
PMID: 103377 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
134. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1977 Jul;68(1):63-7.
[Importance of rodents as transmitters of sarcocystosis (author's transl)].
[Article in Czech]
PMID: 409454 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
135. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1977 Jun 1;90(11):218-24.
[Life-cycle of Sarcosporidia. IX. Developmental cyclus of Sarcocystis suihominis
[Article in German]
PMID: 407901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
136. J Parasitol. 1977 Apr;63(2):222-5.
Serologic test for antibody to Sarcocystis in cattle.
Lunde MN, Fayer R.
Soluble antigen was prepared from Sarcocystis zoites obtained from heart muscle
of a bovine inoculated with sporocysts from canine feces and killed 120 days
after infection. The antigen was used in an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test
and an agar gel diffusion test to detect antibody to Sarcocystis in
experimentally infected cattle. IHA serum titers began to rise 30 to 45 days
after infection and reached levels up to 1:39,000 90 days after infection. Sera
collected under field conditions from 21 dairy cows had IHA titers ranging from
1:54 to 1:486. Since all cows appeared in good health, titers of 1:486 or less
can probably be considered nonsignificant with regard to diagnosis of clinical
disease. No positive Sarcocystis IHA titers were obtained with human sera
previously found to be IHA positive for toxoplasma, indicating a lack of cross
reactivity between antigens. Precipitins in the agar gel diffusion test appeared
30 days postinoculation and became very pronounced at 65 to 90 days.
PMID: 404415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
137. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1976 Nov 15;169(10):1061-78.
A review of Sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and
The nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of Sarcocystis of domestic
animals are reviewed. Sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as
definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. The following species are
found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3
species in the ox: S cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), S hirsuta (cat), S
hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: S ovicanis (dog), S tenella (cat);
3 species in the pig: S miescheriana (dog), S porcifelis n sp (cat), S
porcihominis n sp (man); and 1 species in the horse: S bertrami (dog).
Sarcocystis cruzi, S ovicanis, and S porcifelis are highly pathogenic to the ox,
the sheep, and the pig, respectively. Clinical signs of acute bovine
sarcocystosis are: anorexia, pyrexia (42 C, or more), anemia, cachexia, enlarged
palpable lymph nodes, excessive salivation, and loss of hair at the tip of the
tail. Anemia, anorexia, ataxia, and abortions are the chief clinical signs of
acute ovine sarcocystosis. These signs are evident at the time of vascular
endothelium is parasitized by schizonts. The schizonts disappear in about 1
month, and cysts are formed in the muscles. The cystic phase of sarcocystosis is
virtually nonpathogenic. Carnivores shed sporocysts in their feces after
ingesting the intramuscular cysts from the herbivores. Sarcocystis is
nonpathogenic to the definitive host. Feline and canine coccidia are also
reviewed. The following 11 species are found in cats: Toxoplasma gondii,
Hammondia hammondi, Isospora felis, Isosporarivolta, Besnoitia besnoiti,
Besnoitia sp, and 5 types of Sarcocystis (S hirsuta from the ox, S tenella from
the sheep, S muris from the mouse, S porcifelis from the pig, and Sarcocystis sp
from Grant's gazelle). The following 10 species are found in canine feces
(Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis, Isospora wallacei n sp; and 7 types of
Sarcocystis (S cruzi from the ox, S ovicanis from the sheep, S bertrami and
Sarcocystis sp from the horse, S miescheriana from the pig, S hemionilatrantis
from mule deer, and Sarcocystis sp from Grant's gazelle). The history of Isospora
begemina in dogs is reviewed; life cycles of feline and canine coccidia are
given; oocysts of common feline and canine coccidia are compared and illustrated;
and public health significance of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is discussed,
especially in relation to cats in the household of pregnant women.
PMID: 824260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
138. J Postgrad Med. 1976 Oct;22(4):185-90.
PMID: 829835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
139. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1976 Sep;7(3):489.
Third case of Sarcocystis from man in Malaysia.
Prathap K, Dissanaike AS.
PMID: 828977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
140. Z Parasitenkd. 1976 Aug 16;50(2):109-24.
[Serological studies on Sarcocystis in man and rats (author's transl)].
[Article in German]
Aryeetey ME, Piekarski G.
During a study of sarcosporidiosis in man, rats too were fed on meat infected
with Sarcocystis tenella and A. fusiformis. Further investigations were made on
the antigen relationship between Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma using 50 mice
infected with Toxoplasma. The results are as follows: 1. 18-39 days after eating
raw minced meat (beef) containing Sarcocystis fusiformis, 5 (=41,7%) out of 12
people excreted sporulated sporocysts of the species Isospora hominis in the
faeces. 2. Excretion of sporocysts lasted for 9-179 days without reinfection.
None of the above mentioned people showed any clinical symptoms. 3. There was no
manifestation of immunity as the excretion of sporocysts which had reduced in
number intensified again after repeated administration of similar raw minced
meat. 4. Oral administration of Sarcocystis as antigen leads to the production of
antibodies which could be detected with the indirect immunofluorescent test
(IIFT). These antibodies are common among adults but could be detected in
children after 6 months of age. 5. Sarcocystis antibodies produced in rats after
ingestion of fresh raw S. tenella-infected meat could be detected with the help
of the IIFT in their sera for several months. 6. The indirect immunofluorescent
test is reliable in detecting Sarcocystis infection. 7. No cross-reaction between
Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma was detected in either the human sera or in the
experimentally Sarcocystis-infected rats and Toxoplasma-infected mice. 8.
Parasites lose their capability to function as antigen when subjected to heat or
cold because rats fed on frozen or cooked S. tenella-infected mutton did not
produce antibodies compared to those fed on fresh raw infected mutton. 9. Sera of
rats fed on different types of sausages reacted negative with Sarcocystis
PMID: 822622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
141. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1976 Mar 15;89(6):116-20.
[The life cycle of the Sarcosporidia. VIII. Sporocysts of Sarcocystis bovihominis
in the feces of rhesus monkeys (Macaca rhesus) and baboons (Papio cynocephalus)].
[Article in German]
Heydorn AO, Gestrich R, Janitschke K.
PMID: 816348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
142. J Assoc Physicians India. 1976 Feb;24(2):115-7.
Sarcocystis infection in man.
Agrawal RV, Gupta OP, Nigam SP.
PMID: 826518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
143. J Parasitol. 1976 Feb;62(1):10-4.
Oral infection of mammals with Sarcocystis fusiformis bradyzoites from cattle and
sporocysts from dogs and coyotes.
Fayer R, Johnson AJ, Hildebrandt PK.
Individual sporocysts containing 4 sporozoites were shed in the feces of dogs,
foxes, and raccoons after ingestion of bovine tissue infected with Sarcocystis
fusiformis bradyzoites. No sporocysts were shed by cats, monkeys, swine, skunks,
ferrets, rats, guinea pigs, or rabbits after ingestion of similar bovine tissue.
The shedding of sporocysts by dogs that had ingested tissue from a bovine
experimentally infected with sporocysts from coyotes indicated that both canids
were definitive hosts for the same species of Sarcocystis. After oral inoculation
wtih sporocysts from dogs previously fed infected bovine heart, a calf became
infected; but sheep, swine, rats, mice, rabbits, and monkeys did not. These
results show the narrow specificity of the asexual stages of this parasite for
the bovine intermediate host and the wider, though still restricted, host range
of the sexual stages of this parasite for coyotes, dogs, foxes, and raccoons, the
PMID: 815528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
144. Acta Leiden. 1976;44:1-107.
Sarcocystis and related coccidian parasites: a brief general review, together
with a discussion on some biological aspects of their life cycles and a new
proposal for their classification.
Tadros W, Laarman JJ.
PMID: 829199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
145. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1975 Sep;6(3):400-1.
Sarcocystis infection in an Orang Asli: the second human case from Malaysia.
Kutty MK, Mohan Das A, Dissanaike AS.
The second case of Sarcocystis infection in man is reported from an aborigine
girl. It was an incidental finding at autopsy and two cysts were seen in the
muscle of the oropharyngeal region. The cysts and zoites were similar to those in
the previous case reported from Malaysia.
PMID: 816009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
146. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1975;69(5-6):503-4.
A case of human Sarcocystis infection in west Malaysia.
Kutty MK, Dissanaike AS.
The first case of Sarcocystis infection is reported from West Malaysia. A cyst
was seen as an incidental finding in a biopsy specimen from the larynx of the
patient. The cyst and the cystozoites were of the small size with no evidence of
cytophaneres or compartments.
PMID: 820020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
147. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1975;69(1):148-52.
Apparent isolation of Sarcocystis sp. from human blood (a preliminary note).
PMID: 806997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
148. J Trop Med Hyg. 1974 Nov;77(11):248-59.
The coccidial nature and life-cycle of Sarcocystis.
Markus MB, Killick-Kendrick R, Garnham PC.
PMID: 4219030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
149. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1974 Oct 15;87(20):392-6.
[Life cycle of Sarcosporidia. V. Additional final hosts of Sarcosporidia in
cattle, sheep and pigs and the significance of intermediate host for the
transmission of this parasitosis].
[Article in German]
Rommel M, Heydorn AO, Fischle B, Gestrich R.
PMID: 4213779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
150. Pediatr Res. 1974 Jun;8(6):652-8.
Intestinal parasite survey of kindergarten children in New Orleans.
Hubbard DW, Morgan PM, Yaeger RG, Unglaub WG, Hood MW, Willis RA.
PMID: 4209476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
151. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1974;68(5):415-6.
Letter: Serology of human sacosporidiosis.
PMID: 4218388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
152. Z Parasitenkd. 1974;45(2):125-62.
Advances in the biology of sporozoa.
PMID: 4217974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
153. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1974;68(1):3.
Proceedings: Attempted infection of chimpanzees and cats with Sarcocystis of
Markus MB, Draper CC, Hutchison WH, Killick-Kendrick R, Garnham PC.
PMID: 4206530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
154. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1974;68(1):17-29.
Sarcosporidiosis in man.
PMID: 4206528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
155. N Engl J Med. 1973 Nov 1;289(18):980-1.
Letter: Serology of toxoplasmosis, isosporosis and sarcosporidiosis.
PMID: 4200603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
156. Adv Parasitol. 1973;11(0):631-69.
New knowledge of toxoplasma and toxoplasmosis.
PMID: 4210073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
157. Z Tropenmed Parasitol. 1972 Jun;23(2):172-87.
Immunological methods in diagnosis of protozoan diseases in man and domestic
Soltys MA, Woo PT.
PMID: 4627784 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
158. Rev Invest Salud Publica. 1972 Apr-Jun;32(2):138-43.
[Tosoplasmosis. Study in human serums in the last 4 years. Comparison between the
serology of toxoplasmosis and infection by Sarcocystis in cattle].
[Article in Spanish]
Varela G, Molina Pasquel C, Sánchez Bravo I, De Aluja AS.
PMID: 4201568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
159. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1972;4(1):54-7.
PMID: 4210446 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
160. Lyon Med. 1971 Jun 27;225(12):1274.
[Apropos of a case of sarcocystis].
[Article in French]
Thiers H, Fayolle J, Claudy A, Lu HT.
PMID: 5001121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
161. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr. 1971;78(3):314-6.
[A case of sarcocystis].
[Article in French]
Thiers H, Fayolle J, Claudy A, Lu HT.
PMID: 5002635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
162. Wiad Parazytol. 1971;17(1):29-39.
[Microscopic diagnosis of sarcosporidiosis and its incidence in some domestic
animals in Poland].
[Article in Polish]
PMID: 4997443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
163. JAMA. 1970 Mar 9;211(10):1687-9.
Samuel T. Darling and human sarcosporidiosis or toxoplasmosis in Panama.
PMID: 4984269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
164. Z Tropenmed Parasitol. 1969 Mar;20(1):50-9.
[Differential diagnosis of parasitic "cysts" in myocardial fibers].
[Article in German]
Salfelder K, Werner H, León A, De Liscano TR.
PMID: 4985660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
165. Am J Clin Pathol. 1965 Dec;44(6):639-41.
Sarcosporidiosis in a Bantu woman.
Liu CT, Roberts LM.
PMID: 4954388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
166. Z Gesamte Inn Med. 1958 Jul 15;13(14):527-31.
[Sarcosporodiosis in the human].
[Article in German]
PMID: 13593530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]