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Key information from the research

In Germany and not merely Japan, we find questing or infectious ticks limited to only having this new species. The quote is: Borrelia miyamotoi was the sole spirochete detected in larval ticks sampled while questing

Miyamatoi is highly unique in some ways. It is not detected by many labs, and perhaps all commercial labs in North America and specialty labs also report trouble testing it. Researchers doing unique new testing has nothing to do with what your local physician can get and which s covered by insurance.

It does other amazing things such as: B. miyamotoi appears to be readily passed between generations of vector ticks.

Fomenko reported miyoamotoi this is very clearly a radically different type of "Lyme" based on genetics in his Russian language journal.

Despite the well know ability of birds to groom and quickly remove ticks from their bodies, turkeys have shown massive infections in the USA of the miyoamatoi variety. If one thinks a "Japanese" species is now merely in the state of Tennessee, I would appeal that is unreasonable. Borrelia species in the Tennessee study were tested using a more thorough approach--sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. Tissue was more often positive and almost 60% were positive, despite it is probably a grooming animal that removes ticks--that is what other birds do as a trend. Perhaps that it why most top carries with the largest infective ticks are not birds, even if they are good at dispersing a thousand miles.

You cannot assume this species will show a rash, not matter how common or rare a bulls-eye rash is when a patient is bitten. And it might be that a rash is a sign of a past infection, like a vaccine reaction. The quote is: > 50% of cases of tick borreliosis without erythema were caused by B. miyamotoi.

Hamer reports that infections from ticks seem to occur before real meaningful populations exist in Michigan. Further, this quote is helpful: These infections suggest that cryptic B. burgdorferi transmission by other vector-competent tick is occurring in the absence of I. scapularis which is the primary carrier of tick infections according to most traditional researchers. Other ticks or carriers appear to be present at times to carry infections, so these are not spread by a single vector or single tick. In five years the spread and invasion of tick infections, such as Lyme, has been profound.

Despite the lack of expertise in this new infection, miyamotoi, it is detected in many states in the USA. As opposed to saying false statements like Babesia duncani is located only in select USA regions, when it has been detected throughout and outside N. America, just like Babeisa microti. perhaps it is just simpler to say, virgin very initial studies with a serious and unique type of loosely Lyme related infection does not act like traditional Lyme in many ways, and we need to continue adding to the few studies done relating to North America and the mere 33 studies done on the earth. The degree of our optimal capacity to detect it is unknown, and I suspect will improve over 30 years.

The notion of spirochete mastery in any country such as the USA, Canada or any EU country is confusing.

How can you master a class of infections when you find new Bartonella, Babesia and Lyme species monthly or yearly?

In terms of this fascinating new infection, that is not new, and has been present for decades to generations, what does a mere thirtythree studies say to us? If in the past sixteen years a very small number of studies, perhaps at most about two per year that even mention this species in any manner have been done, how can we possibly be confident about many aspects of this infection?

I do not have a strong position on eighty percent of the main issues related to this infection and believe it teaches us humility and that emerging infections are emerging--do not act like you can capture moving light. At best, make a hypothesis and careful suggestions without any flavor of finalized knowledge.


1. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Absence of Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Larval Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

Richter D, Debski A, Hubalek Z, Matuschka FR.

Abt. Parasitologie, Institut für Pathologie, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin , Berlin, Germany .

Abstract To determine which kind of spirochete infects larval Ixodes ricinus, we examined questing larvae and larvae derived from engorged females for the presence of particular spirochetal DNA that permitted species differentiation. Borrelia miyamotoi was the sole spirochete detected in larval ticks sampled while questing on vegetation. Questing nymphal and adult ticks were infected mainly by Borrelia afzelii, whereas larval ticks resulting from engorged females of the same population were solely infected by B. miyamotoi. Since larvae acquire Lyme disease spirochetes within a few hours of attachment to an infected rodent, questing larvae in nature may have acquired Lyme disease spirochetes from an interrupted host contact. Even if transovarial transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes may occasionally occur, it seems to be an exceedingly rare event. No undisputable proof exists for vertical transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes, whereas B. miyamotoi appears to be readily passed between generations of vector ticks.

PMID: 21923267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Oct;77(19):7088-92. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

flaB Gene as a Molecular Marker for Distinct Identification of Borrelia Species in Environmental Samples by the PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method.

Wodecka B.

A new protocol employing nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) based on the flaB gene and two restriction enzymes was worked out. This protocol allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by Ixodes ricinus in Europe, including Borrelia miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. A dendrogram of flaB sequence similarity was in accordance with RFLP variants.

PMID: 21841027 [PubMed - in process]

3. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol. 2011;(2):12-7.

[Genetic features of Borrelia miyamotoi transmitted by Ixodes persulcatus].

[Article in Russian]

Fomenko NV, Borgoiakov VIu, Panov VV.

The definition and molecular typing of Borrelia miyamotoi transmitted by the Ixodes persuccatus ticks was based on the partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, p66, and glpQ genes. All the B. miyamotoi analyzed sequences of the 16S rRNA, glpQ, and p66 gene fragments from I. persulcatus were identical and had 99.9-100% similarity to corresponding genes of the B. miyamotoi strain FR64b isolated in Japan. The analyzed amino acid sequences revealed that the 66 protein B. miyamotoi in the site corresponding to the surface-exposed domain contained considerable difference from the Borrelia hermsii, the typical member tick-born relapsing fever, as from Borrelia lonestari transmitted by the Ixodes ticks.

PMID: 21786631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Parazitologiia. 2010 Nov-Dec;44(6):543-56.

[Study on the infection of taiga ticks with Borrelia in the territory of Novosibirsk Scientific Center SB PAS].

[Article in Russian]

Borgoiakov VIu, Fomenko NV, Panov VV, Chikova ED.

In our study, Borrelia were revealed in the taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus collected on vegetation by flagging, as well as in the ticks removed from the people who asked for help in the vaccination center located in the Novosibirsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science (NS SB RAS). By the isolation of Borrelia on BSK-H medum, the occurrence of B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi was established in the territory of NSC. B. miyamotoi isolates were unstable and lost their ability to growth in later passages. DNA of the same three species of Borrelia was detected by PCR in the samples of ticks, both collected on vegetation by flagging and removed from humans. DNA of B. garinii was recorded most often; DNA of B. afzelii was less frequent; and the least number of positive samples was shown for B. miyamotoi. In the ticks collected on vegetation by flagging, DNA of B. garinii was found in 38.6%, B. afzelii in 9.9%, and B. miyamoboi in 3.9% of samples. In the ticks removed from people, number of positive samples was lesser; so, DNA of B. garinii was detected in 24.2%, B. afzelii in 6.9%, and B. miyamotoi in 5.6% of samples. Mixed infection with two Borrelia species was recorded, and DNA of B. mivamnotoi more often detected simultaneously with DNA of B. garinii.

PMID: 21427963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 May;77(10):3244-54. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Investigation of genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected during surveillance in Canada.

Ogden NH, Margos G, Aanensen DM, Drebot MA, Feil EJ, Hanincová K, Schwartz I, Tyler S, Lindsay LR.

Zoonoses Division, Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Jeanne Mance Building, 200 Eglantine, Tunney's Pasture, AL 1906B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0K9, Canada.

The genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the agent of Lyme disease in North America, has consequences for the performance of serological diagnostic tests and disease severity. To investigate B. burgdorferi diversity in Canada, where Lyme disease is emerging, bacterial DNA in 309 infected adult Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in surveillance was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of outer surface protein C gene (ospC) alleles. Six ticks carried Borrelia miyamotoi, and one tick carried the novel species Borrelia kurtenbachii. 142 ticks carried B. burgdorferi sequence types (STs) previously described from the United States. Fifty-eight ticks carried B. burgdorferi of 1 of 19 novel or undescribed STs, which were single-, double-, or triple-locus variants of STs first described in the United States. Clonal complexes with founder STs from the United States were identified. Seventeen ospC alleles were identified in 309 B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Positive and negative associations in the occurrence of different alleles in the same tick supported a hypothesis of multiple-niche polymorphism for B. burgdorferi in North America. Geographic analysis of STs and ospC alleles were consistent with south-to-north dispersion of infected ticks from U.S. sources on migratory birds. These observations suggest that the genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi in eastern and central Canada corresponds to that in the United States, but there was evidence for founder events skewing the diversity in emerging tick populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the significance of these observations for the performance of diagnostic tests and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in Canada.

PMCID: PMC3126474 [Available on 2011/11/1] PMID: 21421790 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. J Med Entomol. 2010 Nov;47(6):1238-42.

High-prevalence Borrelia miyamotoi infection among [corrected] wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Tennessee.

Scott MC, Rosen ME, Hamer SA, Baker E, Edwards H, Crowder C, Tsao JI, Hickling GJ.

Center for Wildlife Health, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Erratum in J Med Entomol. 2011 May;48(3):iv.

During spring and fall 2009, 60 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) harvested by Tennessee hunters were surveyed for Borrelia spp. by sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. In both seasons, 70% of turkeys were infested with juvenile Amblyomma americanum; one spring turkey hosted an adult female Ixodes brunneus. Polymerase chain reaction assays followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 58% of the turkeys were positive for the spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, with tissue testing positive more frequently than blood (P = 0.015). Sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer indicated > or = 99% similarity to previously published sequences of the North American strain of this spirochete. Positive turkeys were present in both seasons and from all seven middle Tennessee counties sampled. No ticks from the turkeys tested positive for any Borrelia spp. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi in birds; the transmission pathways and epidemiological significance of this high-prevalence spirochetal infection remain uncertain.

PMID: 21175079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov;76(22):7650-2. Epub 2010 Sep 24.

Elimination of lyme disease spirochetes from ticks feeding on domestic ruminants.

Richter D, Matuschka FR.

Abteilung Parasitologie, Institut für Pathologie, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Malteserstrasse 74-100, 12249 Berlin, Germany.

To determine whether and which spirochetes are cleared from Ixodes ricinus ticks during feeding on ruminants, ticks were removed from goats and cattle grazing on tick-infested pastures. Although about a quarter of ticks questing on the pasture were infected by spirochetes, no molted ticks that had previously engorged to repletion on ruminants harbored Lyme disease spirochetes. Borrelia miyamotoi spirochetes, however, appear not to be eliminated. Thus, the more subadult ticks are diverted from reservoir-competent hosts to zooprophylactic ruminants, the smaller the risk of infection by Lyme disease spirochetes is.

PMCID: PMC2976204 PMID: 20870789 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov;48(11):4169-76. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species in ticks that have bitten humans in Sweden.

Wilhelmsson P, Fryland L, Börjesson S, Nordgren J, Bergström S, Ernerudh J, Forsberg P, Lindgren PE.

Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Erratum in J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jan;49(1):481.

Members of the genus Borrelia are among the most common infectious agents causing tick-borne disease in humans worldwide. Here, we developed a Light Upon eXtension (LUX) real-time PCR assay that can detect and quantify Borrelia species in ticks that have fed on humans, and we applied the assay to 399 such ticks. Borrelia PCR-positive ticks were identified to species level by sequencing the products of conventional PCR performed using Borrelia group-specific primers. There was a 19% prevalence of Borrelia spp. in the detached ticks, and the number of spirochetes per Borrelia PCR-positive tick ranged from 2.0 × 10(2) to 4.9 × 10(5), with a median of 7.8 × 10(3) spirochetes. Adult ticks had a significantly larger number of spirochetes, with a median of 8.4 × 10(3) compared to the median of nymphs of 4.4 × 10(3). [corrected] Adult ticks also exhibited a higher prevalence of Borrelia (33%) than nymphs (14%). Among the identified species, Borrelia afzelii was found to predominate (61%) and was followed by B. garinii (23%), B. valaisiana (13%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (1%), B. lusitaniae (1%), and B. miyamotoi-like (1%). Also, 3% of the ticks were coinfected with multiple strains of B. afzelii. Notably, this is the first report of B. lusitaniae being detected in ticks in Sweden. Our LUX real-time PCR assay proved to be more sensitive than a corresponding TaqMan assay. In conclusion, the novel LUX real-time PCR method is a rapid and sensitive tool for detection and quantification of Borrelia spp. in ticks.

PMCID: PMC3020888 PMID: 20844223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Parazitologiia. 2010 May-Jun;44(3):201-11.

[Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in ticks Ixodes persulcatus from Russia].

[Article in Russian]

Fomenko NV, Livanova NN, Borgoiakov VIu, Kozlova IV, Shulaĭkina IV, Pukhovskaia NM, Tokarevich KN, Livanov SG, Doroshchenko EK, Ivanov LI.

Unfed adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks from five regions of Russia were examined to analyze the distribution and diversity of Borrelia miyamotoi. DNA of B. miyamotoi was found in 1.8% of ticks from Leningrad Oblast, 2.9% from Sverdlovsk, 4.5% from Novosibirsk, 2.3% from Irkutsk Oblast, and 2.5% from Khabarovsk Krai. The molecular typing of the B. miyamotoi DNA was based on the partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, p66, and glpQ genes. The only genetic variant of B. miyamotoi was detected in all samples of ticks collected from these five territories.

PMID: 20795483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2010 May-Jun;(3):72-7.

[Usage of real time polymerase chain reaction for diagnostics of different tick-borne infections].

[Article in Russian]

Karan' LS, Koliasnikova NM, Toporkova MG, Makhneva MA, Nadezhdina MV, Esaulkova AIu, Romanenko VV, Arumova EA, Platonov AE, Maleev VV.

AIM: To create and test the complex of polymerase chain reaction-based methods for detection of pathogens vectored by ticks in clinical and environmental samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real time PCR methods with hybridization-fluorescent detection were developed for detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophillum, Erlichia muris/E. chaffeensis, and B. miyamotoi. First four methods were combined in one assay in multiprime format. Efficacy of the assay was assessed by testing of blood samples from patients with tickborreliosis (166 patients), tick-born encephalitis (22 patients) and mixed infection tick-borne encephalitis + borreliosis (21 patients) from Sverdlovsk region. RESULTS: It was shown that using PCR-based assay for testing the blood samples obtained during admission, it was possible to determine the etiology of disease in 39% of patients, whereas on the basis of serological data diagnosis, as a rule, is made not earlier than on 2nd week of therapy. False-positive results of PCR diagnostics were not observed. Infections caused by Anaplasma or Erlichia were not observed. It was shown that > 50% of cases of tick borreliosis without erythema were caused by B. miyamotoi, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu lato predominated as a causative agent of erythemic form of borreliosis. CONCLUSION: Proposed complex of methods is useful for rapid diagnostics of tick-borne infections including previously unknown infection caused by B. miyamotoi.

PMID: 20734723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):47-63. Epub 2010 Mar 13.

Invasion of the lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis: implications for Borrelia burgdorferi endemicity.

Hamer SA, Tsao JI, Walker ED, Hickling GJ.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Lyme disease risk is increasing in the United States due in part to the spread of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis, the principal vector of the spirochetal pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. A 5-year study was undertaken to investigate hypothesized coinvasion of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi in Lower Michigan. We tracked the spatial and temporal dynamics of the tick and spirochete using mammal, bird, and vegetation drag sampling at eight field sites along coastal and inland transects originating in a zone of recent I. scapularis establishment. We document northward invasion of these ticks along Michigan's west coast during the study period; this pattern was most evident in ticks removed from rodents. B. burgdorferi infection prevalences in I. scapularis sampled from vegetation in the invasion zone were 9.3% and 36.6% in nymphs and adults, respectively, with the majority of infection (95.1%) found at the most endemic site. There was no evidence of I. scapularis invasion along the inland transect; however, low-prevalence B. burgdorferi infection was detected in other tick species and in wildlife at inland sites, and at northern coastal sites in years before the arrival of I. scapularis. These infections suggest that cryptic B. burgdorferi transmission by other vector-competent tick species is occurring in the absence of I. scapularis. Other Borrelia spirochetes, including those that group with B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii, were present at a low prevalence within invading ticks and local wildlife. Reports of Lyme disease have increased significantly in the invasion zone in recent years. This rapid blacklegged tick invasion--measurable within 5 years--in combination with cryptic pathogen maintenance suggests a complex ecology of Lyme disease emergence in which wildlife sentinels can provide an early warning of disease emergence.

PMID: 20229127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Ter Arkh. 2010;82(11):74-80.

[Relapsing borrelioses fevers: forgotten and new ones].

[Article in Russian]

Platonov AE, Maleev VV, Karan' LS.

Relapsing fever borrelioses are widely spread in the endemic regions of Eurasia, Africa, and America as before and account for significant morbidity and mortality; however, these infections have been recently underestimated. The pathogens of the fevers are the Borrelia species transmitted by ticks of the Ornithodoros genus; they genetically differ from the pathogens of Lyme borreliosis--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato transmitted by Ixodes ticks. The species Borrelia miyamotoi belongs to the genetic species of Borrelia, the causative agents of relapsing fevers. The authors found Borrelia of this species in the Ixodes ticks of Russia and first showed that B. miyamotoi were able to induce multiple cases in man, which had been earlier diagnosed as erythema-free Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis. The review considers the pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment of "old" relapsing fever borrelioses versus the available data on the "new" infection caused by B. miyamotoi. This must assist Russian physicians and scientists both to treat "old" and new tick-borne relapsing borrelioses and to schedule studies of the "new" B. myamotoi infection.

PMID: 21381356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. J Med Microbiol. 2010 Mar;59(Pt 3):309-14. Epub 2009 Dec 10.

A comparative analysis of molecular markers for the detection and identification of Borrelia spirochaetes in Ixodes ricinus.

Wodecka B, Leońska A, Skotarczak B.

Department of Genetics, University of Szczecin, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland.

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, carried by Ixodes ticks, is one of the most significant human pathogens, causing Lyme disease. As there is no standardized PCR method for detection and identification of spirochaete DNA, we carried out a comparative analysis using a set of complementary primers for three regions in the genomic DNA of these bacteria (genes fla and rrs and the non-coding rrs-rrlA region). DNA extracted from 579 Ixodes ricinus ticks was subjected to nested PCR. DNA of the examined spirochaetes was detected in 43 (7.4 %) lysates when the fla gene was used as a molecular marker, in 7 (1.2 %) lysates when using primers complementary to the rrs gene, and in 12 (2.1 %) lysates using primers complementary to the non-coding rrs-rrlA sequence. RFLP analysis based on the fla gene helped identify species from the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana), detect co-infections, and also identify Borrelia miyamotoi. Therefore, the fla gene is the most sensitive and specific molecular marker for the detection and identification of Borrelia spirochaetes in I. ricinus.

PMID: 20007765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Dec;81(6):1120-31.

Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species.

Barbour AG, Bunikis J, Travinsky B, Hoen AG, Diuk-Wasser MA, Fish D, Tsao JI.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-4028, USA.

The Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi and the relapsing fever group species Borrelia miyamotoi co-occur in the United States. We used species-specific, quantitative polymerase chain reaction to study both species in the blood and skin of Peromyscus leucopus mice and host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs at a Connecticut site. Bacteremias with B. burgdorferi or B. miyamotoi were most prevalent during periods of greatest activity for nymphs or larvae, respectively. Whereas B. burgdorferi was 30-fold more frequent than B. miyamotoi in skin biopsies and mice had higher densities of B. burgdorferi densities in the skin than in the blood, B. miyamotoi densities were higher in blood than skin. In a survey of host-seeking nymphs in 11 northern states, infection prevalences for B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi averaged approximately 0.20 and approximately 0.02, respectively. Co-infections of P. leucopus or I. scapularis with both B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi were neither more nor less common than random expectations.

PMCID: PMC2841027 PMID: 19996447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Apr;10(3):217-21.

Assessment of polymicrobial infections in ticks in New York state.

Tokarz R, Jain K, Bennett A, Briese T, Lipkin WI.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

Ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. A single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. We determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in New York State where Lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a MassTag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at least one organism; 30% had a polymicrobial infection. Infections with three microbes were detected in 5% of the ticks. One tick was infected with four organisms. Our results show that coinfection is a frequent occurrence in ticks in the two counties surveyed.

PMCID: PMC2883481 PMID: 19725770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Aug;9(4):431-8.

Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens.

Hoen AG, Rollend LG, Papero MA, Carroll JF, Daniels TJ, Mather TN, Schulze TL, Stafford KC 3rd, Fish D.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three Ixodes scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the "4-Poster" device and from control areas over a 6-year period in five geographically diverse study locations in the Northeastern United States and tested for infection with two known agents of human disease, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and for a novel relapsing fever-group spirochete related to Borrelia miyamotoi. Overall, 38.2% of adults and 12.5% of nymphs were infected with B. burgdorferi; 8.5% of adults and 4.2% of nymphs were infected with A. phagocytophilum; and 1.9% of adults and 0.8% of nymphs were infected with B. miyamotoi. In most cases, treatment with the 4-Poster device was not associated with changes in the prevalence of infection with any of these three microorganisms among nymphal or adult ticks. However, the density of nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi, and consequently the entomologic risk for Lyme disease, was reduced overall by 68% in treated areas compared to control areas among the five study sites at the end of the study. The frequency of bacterial coinfections in ticks was generally equal to the product of the proportion of ticks infected with a single bacterium, indicating that enzootic maintenance of these pathogens is independent. We conclude that controlling ticks on deer by self-application of acaricide results in an overall decrease in the human risk for exposure to these three bacterial agents, which is due solely to a reduction in tick density.

PMID: 19650738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Parazitologiia. 2008 Nov-Dec;42(6):441-51.

[Spatial and temporal variability of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus infection with the Lyme disease agent in Moscow Region].

[Article in Russian]

Korotkov IuS, Kislenko GS, Burenkova LA, Rudnikova NA, Karan' LS.

Analysis of long-term data on the infection rated of the taxonomic complex Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus from Moscow Region is carried out. More than 14 000 tick specimens were examined by dark-field microscopy and 704 specimens were investigated by PCR. Two borrelia genospicies, B. afzelii (6.3%) and B. garinii (20%) proved the most prevalent. The genospecies could form a mixtinfection (11%). Borrelia miyamotoi, B. valaisiana, and B. burgdorferi s. s. were also found in the studied territory, with the total ratio lesser than 6%. Acarotropism of Borrelia proved 2.4 times higher with respect to I. persulcatus, than to I. ricinus. Average long-term infection rates of these tick species were 27.3 and 11.3% respectively. Spatial variability of the infection rate in ticks significantly exceeds interannual fluctuations with the variation coefficients 66 and 26% respectively.

PMID: 19198169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Wiad Parazytol. 2007;53(3):231-7.

[Significance of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato].

[Article in Polish]

Wodecka B.

Katedra Genetyki, Uniwersytet Szczecińiski, al. Piastów 40B, 71-065 Szczecin.

BACKGROUND: Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the most important host of the adult tick (Ixodes ricinus) which is the basic vector of the Lyme disease causative agent--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Europe. The aim of the present study was to establish the role of red deer in the transmission of B. burgdorferi s.1. Material and methods. Tissues from 74 red deers were evaluated and the presence of B. burgdorferi s.1 DNA was identified using nested PCR technique based on fla gene. The identification of species belonging to B. burgdorferi s.1 complex was performed after restriction digestion of nested PCR product with Ddel enzyme and sequencing of nested PCR product. The study included also 55 isolates of I. ricinus females removed from red deer and 466 ticks (73 adult and 393 nymphs) collected from the vegetation in the area where the red deer lives. RESULTS: There were no DNA of B. burgdorferi s.1 complex in the red deer tissues and in ticks removed from deer, however in one tick removed from deer the DNA of other Borrelia species--B. miyamotoi was identified. In ticks collected from vegetation 3 species belonging to B. burgdorferi s.1. complex were identified: B. garinii (3.2% ticks studied), B. afzelii (6.9%) and B. valaisiana (3.6%), however DNA of B. miyamotoi was absent. These results confirm inability of survival of B. burgdorferi s.1. species in tick I. ricinus feeding on red deer blood. However there is a possibility of survival of B. miyamotoi in presence of deer blood at least in ticks feeding on red deer. The main role of red deer in keeping the constant infection level of B. burgdorferi s.1. in the whole population of I. ricinus ticks does not concern B. miyamotoi.

PMID: 18075156 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2007;52(4):315-24.

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Borrelia spp. isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks by using electrophoretic chips and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Hulínská D, Votýpka J, Kríz B, Holínková N, Nováková J, Hulínský V.

National Reference Laboratory for Lyme Borreliosis, Center ofEpidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health, 100 42 Prague, Czechia.

The genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was detected in 371 out of 1244 ticks. Borrelia determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and real-time polymerase chain reactions for identification and quantitation of ospA and recA genes. Different Borrelia spp. were identified; B. garinii in 40% ticks followed by B. afzelii (36.3%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (12.9%), B. valaisiana (3.5%), B. lusitaniae (0.8%), B. bissettii (0.5%) and B. miyamotoi-like (0.5%). Cultivation of 30 borrelia strains in BSK-H medium, among them B. valaisiana, B. bissettii-like and B. miyamotoi-like strains was unique in Czechia. Calibrated microfluidic-based quantification showed differences in the concentration of the nucleic acids and molar mass of the outer surface proteins of different Borrelia spp. with standard sensitivity and specificity and was helpful for their identification. The outer surface protein OspA was absent in B. miyamotoi-like and the OspB protein in B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae and in three subtypes of B. garinii.

PMID: 18062179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Dec;12(12):1919-23.

Modulatory effect of cattle on risk for lyme disease.

Richter D, Matuschka FR.

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

To determine the effect of cattle on the risk for Lyme disease, we compared the prevalence of spirochete infection in questing vector ticks collected from a pasture with low-intensity cattle grazing with the prevalence in those collected from a site on which no cattle grazed. The presence of cattle limited the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., but not B. miyamotoi, in vector ticks. The reintroduction of traditional, nonintensive agriculture in central Europe may help reduce risk for Lyme disease.

PMID: 17326945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. J Med Entomol. 2006 Jan;43(1):120-3.

Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California.

Mun J, Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Lane RS.

Division of Insect Biology, 201 Wellman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3112, USA.

We investigated whether host-seeking nymphs and adults of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in far-western North America, are infected naturally with relapsing-fever group spirochetes in Mendocino County, California. Relapsing-fever group borreliae were detected in four (1.7%) of 234 nymphal and two (0.7%) of 282 adult host-seeking I. pacificus ticks by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and flagellin genes, respectively, exhibiting 99 and 98.5% sequence homology to Borrelia miyamotoi Fukunaga. Phylogenetic analysis based on these two genes revealed that the borreliae detected in these ticks belong to the relapsing-fever group and that these are closely related to, if not identical with, B. miyamotoi.

PMID: 16506458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. J Med Entomol. 2005 Nov;42(6):1057-62.

Three multiplex assays for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in field-collected Ixodes nymphs in North America.

Ullmann AJ, Gabitzsch ES, Schulze TL, Zeidner NS, Piesman J.

Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA.

Two hundred fifty New Jersey field-collected Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and 17 Colorado Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall ticks were tested using three separate multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. One assay targets the rrs-rrlA IGS region of Borrelia spp. to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Borrelia miyamotoi s.l. The second assay targets the ospA region of B. burgdorferi s.l. to detect B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), Borrelia bissettii, and Borrelia andersonii. The final assay targets the glpQ region of B. miyamotoi s.l. to differentiate B. miyamotoi LB-2001 and Borrelia lonestari. A testing scheme combining these tests yielded 18% of tested I. scapularis ticks surveyed from New Jersey positive for B. burgdorferi s.s., 3.2% I. scapularis ticks positive for B. miyamotoi LB-2001, and 41.2% I. spinipalpis ticks positive for B. bissettii surveyed from Colorado.

PMID: 16465748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep;73(9):6165-8.

Horizontally acquired genes for purine salvage in Borrelia spp. causing relapsing fever.

Barbour AG, Putteet-Driver AD, Bunikis J.

Pacific-Southwest Center, 346 Hewitt Hall, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4025, USA.

Unlike Borrelia burgdorferi, the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii and the related Borrelia miyamotoi had purA and purB genes of the purine salvage pathway. These were located among the rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these genes had a different evolutionary history than those of orthologs in other spirochetes.

PMCID: PMC1231056 PMID: 16113341 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep;10(9):1661-4.

Typing of Borrelia relapsing fever group strains.

Bunikis J, Tsao J, Garpmo U, Berglund J, Fish D, Barbour AG.

University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA.

Partial sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer showed two to four genotypes each for Borrelia hermsii and B. turicatae, both relapsing fever agents transmitted by argasid ticks, and for B. miyamotoi and B. lonestari, transmitted by ixodid ticks. Field surveys of Ixodes ticks in Connecticut and Sweden showed limited local diversity for B. miyamotoi.

PMID: 15498172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001 Spring;1(1):21-34.

A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks.

Scoles GA, Papero M, Beati L, Fish D.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA.

A species of Borrelia spirochetes previously unknown from North America has been found to be transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Infected ticks are positive for Borrelia spp. by DFA test but negative for Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers for 16S rDNA, outer surface protein A, outer surface protein C, and flagellin genes. A 1,347-bp portion of 16S rDNA was amplified from a pool of infected nymphs, sequenced, and compared with the homologous fragment from 26 other species of Borrelia. The analysis showed 4.6% pairwise difference from B. burgdorferi, with the closest relative being Borrelia miyamotoi (99.3% similarity) reported from Ixodes persulcatus in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed the unknown Borrelia to cluster with relapsing fever group spirochetes rather than with Lyme disease spirochetes. A 764-bp fragment of the flagellin gene was also compared with the homologous fragment from 24 other Borrelia species. The flagellin sequence of B. burgdorferi was 19.5% different from the unknown Borrelia and showed 98.6% similarity with B. miyamotoi. A pair of PCR primers specifically designed to amplify a 219-bp fragment of the flagellin gene from this spirochete was used to survey field-collected I. scapularis nymphs from five northeastern states (Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, and Maryland). Positive results were obtained in 1.9-2.5% of 712 nymphs sampled from four states but in none of 162 ticks collected from Maryland. Transovarial transmission was demonstrated by PCR of larval progeny from infected females with filial infection rates ranging from 6% to 73%. Transstadial passage occurred from larvae through adults. Vertebrate infection was demonstrated by feeding infected nymphs on Peromyscus leucopus mice and recovering the organism from uninfected xenodiagnostic larvae fed 7-21 days later. Considering the frequency of contact between I. scapularis and humans, further work is needed to determine the potential public health significance of yet another zoonotic agent transmitted by this tick species.

PMID: 12653133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Sep;40(9):3308-12.

Determination of novel Borrelia genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks.

Fraenkel CJ, Garpmo U, Berglund J.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Blekinge Hospital, S-371 85 Karlskrona, Sweden.

A total of 301 adult questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of Sweden to determine the Borrelia genospecies diversity. Thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested PCR with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. Species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene. Five different Borrelia species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the Borrelia DNA found in two ticks differed extensively from the nucleotide sequences of the Borrelia DNA found in the other ticks, and analysis revealed that they were closely related to the relapsing fever borrelia species Borrelia miyamotoi. This is the first report of a B. miyamotoi-like borrelia in I. ricinus and in Europe. Moreover, the Borrelia DNA of two ticks (6%) clustered within the B. valaisiana complex. B. valaisiana has not previously been reported in Sweden. B. afzelii DNA was found in 14 ticks (44%), and B. garinii DNA was found in 10 ticks (31%). B. burgdorferi sensu stricto DNA was found in four ticks (13%). We conclude that all of the known human-pathogenic species (B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) and B. valaisiana found elsewhere in Europe are also present in the Swedish host-seeking tick population and that a B. miyamotoi-like Borrelia species seems to be present in I. ricinus ticks in Europe.

PMCID: PMC130762 PMID: 12202571 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Feb;39(2):494-7.

Lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis.

Rich SM, Armstrong PM, Smith RD, Telford SR 3rd.

Division of Infectious Disease, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA.

Although Borrelia theileri, the agent of bovine borreliosis, was described at the turn of the century (in 1903), its relationship with borreliae causing Lyme disease or relapsing fever remains undescribed. We tested the previously published hypothesis that spirochetes infecting Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) may comprise B. theileri by analyzing the 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and flagellin genes of these spirochetes. B. theileri, the Amblyomma agent, and B. miyamotoi formed a natural group or clade distinct from but most closely related to that of the relapsing fever spirochetes. B. theileri and the Amblyomma agent were 97 and 98% similar at the nucleotide level within the analyzed portions of the 16S rDNA and the flagellin gene respectively, suggesting a recent divergence. The agent of bovine borreliosis might be explored as a surrogate antigen for the as-yet-uncultivatable Amblyomma agent in studies designed to explore the etiology of a Lyme disease-like infection associated with Lone Star ticks.

PMCID: PMC87764 PMID: 11158095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Oct;46(4):898-905.

Phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia species based on flagellin gene sequences and its application for molecular typing of Lyme disease borreliae.

Fukunaga M, Okada K, Nakao M, Konishi T, Sato Y.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan.

We determined almost complete flagellin gene sequences of various Borrelia species and aligned them with previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus Borrelia was divided into the following three major clusters: New World relapsing fever borreliae (Borrelia turicatae, Borrelia parkeri, and Borrelia hermsii), Old World relapsing fever borreliae (Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia hispanica), and Lyme disease borreliae (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii). Agents of animal spirochetosis (Borrelia coriaceae and Borrelia anserina) and species of unknown pathogenicity (Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia lonestari) were related to relapsing fever borreliae. Although the Lyme disease borreliae, two related species (Borrelia japonica and Borrelia andersonii), and some newly described genomic groups (groups PotiB2, VS116, DN127, Hk501, and Ya501) were closely related to each other, each taxon formed an independent branch on the phylogenetic tree. The data obtained in this study indicate that the flagellin genes are useful in Borrelia taxonomy. To distinguish the Lyme disease borreliae from related organisms easily, we designed an oligonucleotide primer set for the flagellin gene and performed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The primer set amplified an approximately 580-bp DNA fragment that included species-specific restriction sites, and HapII, HhaI, CelII, HincII, or DdeI digestion of the product resulted in distinctively different PCR-RFLP patterns. The PCR-RFLP typing method which we developed should facilitate rapid identification of Lyme disease borreliae and related organisms obtained from biological and clinical specimens.

PMID: 8863416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Oct;46(4):859-65.

Phylogenesis of relapsing fever Borrelia spp.

Ras NM, Lascola B, Postic D, Cutler SJ, Rodhain F, Baranton G, Raoult D.

Unité de Bactériologie Moléculaire et Médicale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

The phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. Complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. The results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the RF Borrelia spp. into three major clusters. One cluster included Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia hispanica. Another cluster comprised tow main branches with Borrelia coriaceae, Borrelia lonestari, and Borrelia miyamotoi on one side and Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia turicatae, and Borrelia hermsii on the other side. Borrelia anserina constituted the third cluster. The phylogenetic position of Borrelia persica was more uncertain. These results suggested that the taxonomy of these spirochetes should be revised. To overcome the problems of culturing the spirochetes, RF Borrelia primers were defined. Following PCR amplification of the rrs gene, restriction length fragment polymorphism could be used to distinguish between RF Borrelia strains.

PMID: 8863409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 Sep;3(5):533-40.

Physical mapping of the Borrelia miyamotoi HT31 chromosome in comparison with that of Borrelia turicatae, an etiological agent of tick-borne relapsing fever.

Takahashi Y, Fukunaga M.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan.

We report the construction of physical maps of chromosomes for Borrelia miyamotoi HT31 (a new species of Borrelia) and Borrelia turicatae (relapsing fever agent) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments generated by digestion of chromosomal DNA with rare-cutting restriction endonucleases and reciprocal hybridization. The size of the B. miyamotoi HT31 chromosome was calculated to be approximately 925 kilobase pairs, and the chromosome for B. turicatae was estimated to be 951 kilobase pairs. The chromosomes of B. miyamotoi HT31 and B. turicatae consisted of single linear molecules. The locations of several genes have been assigned to the chromosome maps by Southern hybridization by using specific gene probes. Comparison of the genetic maps of the two species of Borrelia provided evidence that the gene order on the chromosomes is quite similar to that of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains and is highly conserved in the genus Borrelia.

PMCID: PMC170402 PMID: 8877131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996 Jul 1;140(2-3):131-7.

Homology of variable major protein genes between Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia miyamotoi.

Hamase A, Takahashi Y, Nohgi K, Fukunaga M.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Erratum in FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996 Oct 1;143(2-3):299.

Antigenic variation has been studied in detail for the etiological agent of relapsing fever, Borrelia hermsii. The variable major proteins (vmps) are found at its cell surface, enabling it to avoid the host's immune response. We have cloned and sequenced the vmp-gene (vmp)-like sequences from the Borrelia miyamotoi strains HT31 and FR64b and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with the published vmp proteins vmp3, vmp24, and vmp33 of B. hermsii. The sequences were aligned and revealed pairwise sequence identities ranging from 45 to 51%, and differences were scattered throughout the sequences. Southern hybridization using the cloned vmp-like sequence of strain HT31 as a probe suggested that the vmp homologues reside on the linear plasmids of B. miyamotoi. The probe hybridized weakly with B. hermsii linear plasmids and restriction digests. These results suggest that B. miyamotoi has sequences resembling the vmp genes in B. hermsii.

PMID: 8764474 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995 Dec 15;134(2-3):255-8.

The flagellin gene of Borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov. and its phylogenetic relationship among Borrelia species.

Fukunaga M, Koreki Y.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukayama University, Japan.

We have cloned and sequenced the flagellin gene from Borrelia miyamotoi strain HT31 and compared it with previously published flagellin sequences. Sequence similarity analysis demonstrated that strain HT31 is phylogenetically distant from the three species of Lyme disease borreliae is deeply branched into the relapsing fever borrelia cluster. The result was in full agreement with the classification of Borrelia strains using 16S tRNA sequences. This finding indicates that a phylogenetic analysis using flagellin gene sequences might be useful for classification of Borrelia strains.

PMID: 8586277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995 Oct;45(4):804-10.

Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov., isolated from the ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus, the vector for Lyme disease in Japan.

Fukunaga M, Takahashi Y, Tsuruta Y, Matsushita O, Ralph D, McClelland M, Nakao M.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan.

The ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus is the most important vector of Lyme disease in Japan. Most spirochete isolates obtained from I. persulcatus ticks have been classified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato because of their genetic, biological, and immunological characteristics. However, we found that a small number of isolates obtained from I. persulcatus contained a smaller 38-kDa endoflagellar protein and single 23S-5S rRNA gene unit. Representative isolate HT31T (T = type strain) had the same 23S rRNA gene physical map as Borrelia turicatae. The DNA base composition of strain HT31T was 28.6 mol% G+C. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that strain HT31T exhibited moderate levels of DNA relatedness (24 to 51%) with Borrelia hermsii, B. turicatae, Borrelia parkeri, and Borrelia coriaceae. However, the levels of DNA reassociation with the previously described Lyme disease borreliae (B. burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii) were only 8 to 13%. None of the previously described species examined exhibited a high level of DNA relatedness with strain HT31T. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence (length, 1,368 nucleotides) of strain HT31T was determined and aligned with the 16S rRNA sequences of other Borrelia species. Distance matrix analyses were performed, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The results showed that isolate HT31T is only distantly related to both previously described Lyme disease borreliae and relapsing fever borreliae. Thus, the spirochetes isolated from I. persulcatus and closely related isolates should be classified as members of a new Borrelia species. We propose the name Borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov. for this spirochete; strain HT31 is the type strain.

PMID: 7547303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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