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Symptoms of Ochratoxin Mycotoxin Exposure

With Bibliography

Compiled by Deborah Cazden, July 9, 2001

Sources: Aerotech Laboratories
Mycotoxin Prevention and Control in Foodgrains

© 2001 Deborah Cazden. All rights reserved. kieoh000@lycos.com

Disclaimer, This document is not meant to diagnose a health problem it is simply a tool. Please consult with your regular doctor if you have a health concern. No guarantee is implied by the use of this document. All information contained here is accurate to the best of my knowledge, but since the compilation is from other sources, I cannot guarantee all the information is correct.

Symptoms of Ochratoxin exposure

NAME, SYMPTOM (description) (references)

  1. Anemia (low red blood cell count) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977; Huff et. al., 1979)
  2. Anorexia (loss of appetite, refusal to eat) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  3. Apoptosis (cell death) (Gekle, 2000; Schwerdt et. al., 1999; Schwerdt et. al. 2000)
  4. Carcinogenic (causes cancer) (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  5. Copper colored skin (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  6. Decreased Hemoglobin (Gupta et. al. 1979)
  7. Decreased lymphocytes (immune cells) (Muller, 1999; Verma and Mathew, 1998))
  8. Endemic Nephropathy (Peraica and Domijan; 2000, Krough, 1972)
  9. Fatigue (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  10. Headache (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  11. Increased apoptotic phagocytes (death of neutrophils and macrophages) (Muller, 1999)
  12. Increased clotting time (Gupta et. al. 1979)
  13. Increased eosinophils (cells that can trigger asthma attacks and immune response) (Muller, 1999)
  14. Increased leukocytes (white blood cells) (Muller, 1999)
  15. Increased Neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) (Muller, 1999)
  16. Increased reactive oxygen radicals (very powerful oxidizing agents that cause structural damage to proteins and nucleic acids) (Muller, 1999)
  17. Induces DNA adducts (may cause mutations in DNA) (leads to nucleotide substitutions, deletions, and chromosome rearrangements) (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  18. Inhibition of protein synthesis (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  19. Inhibits Phenylalanine hydroxylase (Zanic-Grubisic T, et al., 2000)
  20. Intermittent hematuria (blood in the urine) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  21. Lassitude (fatigue) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  22. Nephrotoxic (causes kidney damage) (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  23. Neurotoxin (damages parts of the brain) (esp. ventral mesencephalon and the cerebellum) (Belmadani A, et. al. 1999)
  24. Reduced phagocytosis (cells have a reduced ability to kill microorganisms in the body) (Muller, 1999)
  25. Suppresses the immune system (Baudrimont, et al., 1994)
  26. Teratogenic (causes birth defects) (Zanic-Grubisic T, et al., 2000)
  27. Urinary tract tumors (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  28. Yellow palms (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)


Baudrimont I, Betbeder AM, Gharbi A, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Dirheimer G, Creppy EE, "Effect of superoxide dismutase and catalase on the nephrotoxicity induced by subchronical administration of ochratoxin A in rats," Toxicology 1994 Apr 18;89(2):101-11

Belmadani A, Steyn PS, Tramu G, Betbeder AM, Baudrimont I, Creppy EE. "Selective toxicity of ochratoxin A in primary cultures from different brain regions." Arch Toxicol 1999 Mar;73(2):108-14

Burge, H.A. and Ammann, H.A., "Fungal Toxins and (13)-D-Glucans. Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control." 1999 Edited by J. Macher, H.A. Ammann, H.A. Burge, D. K. Milton, and P.R. Morey (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists, Cincinnati, Ohio), pp. 24-1 24-13.

Chernozemsky, I.N., Stoyanov, I.S., Pet KoyaBocharova, T.K., Nocolov, l.G., Draganov, l.V., Stoichev, I.l., Tanchev, Y., Naidenoc. D., and Kaicheva, N.D. "Geographic correlation between the occurrence of endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Vratza district, Bulgaria." 1977 Int. J. Cancer 19: 1-11.

Gekle M, Schwerdt G, Freudinger R, Mildenberger S, Wilflingseder D, Pollack V, Dander M, Schramek H. "Ochratoxin A induces JNK activation and apoptosis in MDCK-C7 cells at nanomolar concentrations." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000 Jun;293(3):837-44

Gekle, M., G. Schwerdt, R. Freudinger, S. Mildenberger, D. Wilfingseder, V. Pollack, M. Dander and H. Schramek. "Ochratoxin A induces JNK activation and apoptosis in MDCK-C7 cells at nanomolar concentrations." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 293, 837-844, 2000

Gupta M, Bandopadhyay S, Paul B, Majumder SK. Hematological changes produced in mice by ochratoxin A. Toxicology 1979 Sep;14(1):95-8

Huff, W. E., C. F. Chang, M. F. Warren, and P. B. Hamilton. "Ochratoxin A-induced iron deficiency anemia." Appl. Microbiol. 37:601-604. 1979.

Jacobsen, B.J., Bowen, K.L., Shelby, R.A. Dicner, U.L., Kemppainen, B.W., and Floyd, J. 1993. "Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses." Circular ANR-767 (Alabama Cooperative Extension Service), 16pp.

Krogh P. "Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy: a possible model for Balkan endemic nephropathy." In: Puchlev E, editor. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Endemic Nephropathy; 9-11 Nov 1972; Sophia, Bulgaria. Sophia: Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; 1974. p 266-70.

Muller G, Kielstein P, Rosner H, Berndt A, Heller M, Kohler H. "Studies of the influence of ochratoxin A on immune and defence reactions in weaners," Mycoses 1999;42(7-8):495-505

Peraica M, Domijan AM. "Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health." Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35

Schwerdt, G., R. Freudinger, C. Schuster, S. Silbernagl and M. Gekle. "Apoptosis in cultured renal epithelial cells caused by ochratoxin A." Mycotoxin Research 16A, 154-157, 2000 (Proceedings 22nd Mycotoxin-Workshop Bonn 2000)

Schwerdt, G., R. Freudinger, S. Mildenberger, S. Silbernagl and Gekle, M. "The nephrotoxin ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells." Cell Biol. Toxicol. 15, 405-415, 1999

Verma RJ, Mathew S., "Alterations in total and differential counts of WBC during ochratoxicosis in rabbits," Indian J Exp Biol 1998 Apr;36(4):424-5

Zanic-Grubisic T, Zrinski R, Cepelak I, Petrik J, Radic B, Pepeljnjak S., "Studies of ochratoxin A-induced inhibition of phenylalanine hydroxylase and its reversal by phenylalanine," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000 Sep 1;167(2):132-9

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