The Use of Mepron for Babesia
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to babesiosis in a immunocompetent host.
Cunha BA, Cohen YZ, McDermott B.
Infectious Disease Division, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York 11501, USA.
Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) are defined as prolonged fevers of 101 degrees F or greater lasting 3 or more weeks that remain undiagnosed after comprehensive inpatient/outpatient laboratory testing. Tick-borne infections are uncommon causes of FUOs. Any infectious disease accompanied by prolonged fevers can present as an FUO if the diagnosis is not suspected or if specific laboratory testing is not done to confirm the diagnosis. Babesiosis is transmitted by the Ixodes scapularis ticks endemic to areas in the northeastern United States. We present the case of a 73-year-old, non-human immunodeficiency virus, male from Long Island who presented with FUO for 6 weeks. As with malaria, there are usually few or no localizing signs in babesiosis. During the patient's hospitalization, babesiosis was suspected on the basis of nonspecific laboratory findings, that is, relative lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and an elevated lactate dehydrogenase. When babesiosis was considered in the differential diagnosis, stained blood smears demonstrated the red blood cell inclusions of babesiosis. In the hospital, the patient developed noncardiac pulmonary edema, which rapidly resolved which has been described as a rare complication of babesiosis. He also had an elevated immunoglobulin-M Lyme titer indicating coinfection with Lyme disease. Although his hemolytic anemia persisted for weeks, he only had 3% parasitemia and intact splenic function. We believe this to be the first case of babesiosis presenting as an FUO in a normal host.
PMID: 18992633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
In vitro evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of 15 drugs against Babesia gibsoni (Aomori strain).
Matsuu A, Yamasaki M, Xuan X, Ikadai H, Hikasa Y.
Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. email@example.com
The in vitro growth inhibitory activities of 15 drugs against Babesia gibsoni were evaluated following establishment of a continuous culture isolate (Aomori isolate). The culture was successfully continued in an RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 20% normal canine serum or fetal bovine serum in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 and 5% O2 at 37 degrees C. We used this isolate to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of naphthoquinone (atovaquone), aromatic diamidine (diminazene and pentamidine), artemisinin compounds (artesunate and dihydroartemisinin), an iron chelator (deferoxamine), quinoline-containing compounds (quinine and chloroquine), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin), lyncomycin antibiotics (clindamycin), tetracycline antibiotics (doxycycline and minocycline), imidazole antifungals (clotrimazole and ketoconazole), and a nitroimidazole antiprotozoal (metronidazole). Atovaquone and aromatic diamidine showed the highest activity; they were followed by artesunate compounds with nanomole levels of IC50. Metronidazole did not exhibit activity against the parasite. Other drugs exhibited intermediate in vitro activities with micromole levels of IC50. This is the first report to screen drug activities against B. gibsoni in vitro. The results of our study may support further in vitro drug evaluation for the establishment of therapeutic strategies against canine B. gibsoni infections.
PMID: 18771856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Vannier E, Gewurz BE, Krause PJ.
Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, 800 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Human babesiosis is an emerging intraerythrocytic infection caused by protozoal parasites transmitted by ixodid ticks. Babesiosis is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern regions of the United States and is found sporadically in other parts of the United States, Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. Babesial infections range from asymptomatic to severe and occasionally are fatal. Specific laboratory diagnosis of babesial infection is made by morphologic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, serology, and amplification of babesial DNA using polymerase chain reaction. The combination of atovaquone and azithromycin is the treatment of choice for mild-to-moderate illness, whereas clindamycin and quinine and exchange transfusion are indicated for severe disease.
PMID: 18755385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Treatment of refractory Babesia microti infection with atovaquone-proguanil in an HIV-infected patient: case report.
Vyas JM, Telford SR, Robbins GK.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
A patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome presented with babesiosis 6 months after presumed tick exposure. Despite initial treatment with azithromycin and atovaquone, followed by quinine and clindamycin, he experienced an increasing parasite load. Finally, red blood cell exchange transfusion, anti-Babesia therapy, and the addition of atovaquone-proguanil to the treatment regimen led to symptomatic improvement and elimination of parasitemia. Low-level parasitemia recurred 20 weeks later and was eradicated by administration of atovaquone-proguanil monotherapy. Atovaquone-proguanil appears to have activity against babesiosis and should be studied as a potential therapy for patients with refractory babesiosis.
PMID: 18190320 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Persistent and relapsing babesiosis in immunocompromised patients.
Krause PJ, Gewurz BE, Hill D, Marty FM, Vannier E, Foppa IM, Furman RR, Neuhaus E, Skowron G, Gupta S, McCalla C, Pesanti EL, Young M, Heiman D, Hsue G, Gelfand JA, Wormser GP, Dickason J, Bia FJ, Hartman B, Telford SR 3rd, Christianson D, Dardick K, Coleman M, Girotto JE, Spielman A.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, and Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06106, USA. PKrause@ccmckids.org
BACKGROUND: Human babesiosis is a tickborne malaria-like illness that generally resolves without complication after administration of atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine. Although patients experiencing babesiosis that is unresponsive to standard antimicrobial therapy have been described, the pathogenesis, clinical course, and optimal treatment regimen of such cases remain uncertain. METHODS: We compared the immunologic status, clinical course, and treatment of 14 case patients who experienced morbidity or death after persistence of Babesia microti infection, despite repeated courses of antibabesial treatment, with those of 46 control subjects whose infection resolved after a single course of standard therapy. This retrospective case-control study was performed in southern New England, New York, and Wisconsin. RESULTS: All case patients were immunosuppressed at the time of acute babesiosis, compared with <10% of the control subjects. Most case patients experienced B cell lymphoma and were asplenic or had received rituximab before babesial illness. The case patients were more likely than control subjects to experience complications, and 3 died. Resolution of persistent infection occurred in 11 patients after 2-10 courses of therapy, including administration of a final antimicrobial regimen for at least 2 weeks after babesia were no longer seen on blood smear. CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromised people who are infected by B. microti are at risk of persistent relapsing illness. Such patients generally require antibabesial treatment for >or=6 weeks to achieve cure, including 2 weeks after parasites are no longer detected on blood smear.
PMID: 18181735 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Complications of coinfection with Babesia and Lyme disease after splenectomy.
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15217, USA. email@example.com
PMID: 18178707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Molecular characterisation of Babesia gibsoni infection from a pit-bull terrier pup recently imported into South Africa.
Matjila PT, Penzhorn BL, Leisewitz AL, Bhoora R, Barker R.
Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa. firstname.lastname@example.org
Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni was diagnosed in a 3-month-old Pit-bull pup during a routine clinical examination. Diagnosis was confirmed by way of smear examination, PCR, Reverse Line Blot (RLB) and sequence analysis which showed 100% homology with B. gibsoni (Japan AB118032) and Babesia sp. (Oklahoma) (AF205636). Haematology showed moderate anaemia and severe thrombocytopenia. Treatment was initiated with diminazene aceturate (Berenil RTU) followed by 2 doses of imidocarb diproprionate (Forray-65) 3 days and 14 days later, respectively. Babesia gibsoni DNA was still detectable 2 weeks post-treatment on the PCR/RLB test. A 10-day course of combination drug therapy using atovaquone and azithromycin was initiated. Blood samples taken on Day 1 and Day 40 after completion of treatment were negative for B. gibsoni DNA on PCR/RLB test. The implications of a possible introduction of B. gibsoni into South Africa are discussed.
PMID: 17665757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Babesia gibsoni: detection during experimental infections and after combined atovaquone and azithromycin therapy.
Jefferies R, Ryan UM, Jardine J, Robertson ID, Irwin PJ.
Australasian Centre for Companion Animal Research, Division of Health Sciences, Murdoch University, WA 6150, Australia.
Babesia gibsoni is a protozoan parasite of dogs worldwide yet both an effective treatment and a reliable method for detecting subclinical cases of this emerging infection remain elusive. Experimental B. gibsoni infections were established in vivo to investigate the efficacy of combined atovaquone and azithromycin drug therapy and to determine the detection limits of a nested-PCR, IFAT and microscopy during various stages of infection. While atovaquone and azithromycin produced a reduction in parasitaemia, it did not eliminate the parasite and drug resistance appeared to develop in one dog. Polymerase chain reaction was found to be most useful in detecting infection in the pre-acute and acute stages, while IFAT was most reliable during chronic infections. Microscopy is suggested to be only effective for detecting acute stage infections. This study also describes the detection of B. gibsoni in tissue samples during chronic infections for the first time, suggesting possible sequestration of this parasite.
PMID: 17543304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Are various Babesia species a missed cause for hypereosinophilia? A follow-up on the first reported case of imatinib mesylate for idiopathic hypereosinophilia.
Schaller JL, Burkland GA, Langhoff PJ.
INTRODUCTION: In 2001 we reported the first case of use of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) for treatment of idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES). These findings have been replicated in some patients with HES. After 1 year of taking imatinib, the patient stopped this medication, and during the last 5 years the patient has not experienced a relapse. He has, however, recently been diagnosed with babesiosis. This new diagnosis might relate to his HES. METHODS: After 6 years we decided to follow up on this patient's treatment. We interviewed the patient, his son, his aunt, and 2 consulting physicians and also reviewed relevant laboratory results to determine whether his HES had returned and whether his residual morbidity had changed. RESULTS: The patient has had no relapse of HES and his eosinophil counts have remained low-normal. He was recently diagnosed with babesiosis, and was prescribed atovaquone and azithromycin with a significant decrease in morbidity. His eosinophil cationic protein levels have also fallen to low-normal since starting atovaquone and azithromycin. DISCUSSION: New Babesia species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have available antibody or polymerase chain reaction diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of variable utility due to low numbers of infected red blood cells, suboptimal technique, and limited experience. Therefore, a diagnosis might need to be empirical at times, and should be based on signs and symptoms. CONCLUSION: The patient has not relapsed in the 5 years that he has not been taking imatinib. Babesiosis should be added to the many possible causes of HES. It is unknown how often babesiosis causes HES as well as what percentage of HES patients have babesiosis.
PMID: 17435644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
First case of human babesiosis in Germany - Clinical presentation and molecular characterisation of the pathogen.
Häselbarth K, Tenter AM, Brade V, Krieger G, Hunfeld KP.
Department of Internal Medicine II, Hegau-Bodensee-Medical Center, Singen, Germany.
Babesiosis is a common infection of animals and is gaining increasing attention as an emerging tick-borne zoonosis of humans in Europe. Here we report on the first case of human babesiosis in Germany in a 63-year-old splenectomised German patient with a relapse of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma. After treatment with a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody preparation (Rituximab), the patient was hospitalised because of anaemia and dark urine from haemoglobinuria. Presumptive diagnosis of babesiosis was made based on piriform parasitic erythrocytic inclusions in peripheral blood smears and confirmed by Babesia-specific 18S rDNA PCR. Sequence analysis revealed a >99% homology of the amplicon with the recently described EU1 organism clustering within the Babesia divergens/Babesia odocoilei complex. Despite treatment with quinine and clindamycin the patient relapsed and developed chronic parasitaemia requiring re-treatment and long-term maintenance therapy with atovaquone before he eventually seroconverted and the parasite was cleared. Our findings suggest that human babesiosis occurs in Germany and can take a chronic course in immunocompromised individuals.
PMID: 17350888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Atovaquone and azithromycin treatment for babesiosis in an infant.
Raju M, Salazar JC, Leopold H, Krause PJ.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA.
An 8-month-old infant with cyanotic heart disease and transfusion-associated Babesia microti infection is reported here. At initial presentation, she was ill appearing, febrile and cyanotic. Laboratory tests revealed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia and an increase in hepatic enzymes. The diagnosis was made by the presence of intraerythrocytic parasites on thin blood smear and confirmed by serology and polymerase chain reaction. The infant was treated successfully with a combination of oral azithromycin and atovaquone. This combination is an alternative to clindamycin and quinine for the treatment of children with babesiosis.
PMID: 17259886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Motor neuron disease recovery associated with IV ceftriaxone and anti-Babesia therapy.
Harvey WT, Martz D.
Rocky Mountain Chronic Disease Specialists, L.L.C., North Circle Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80909, USA. email@example.com
This report summarizes what we believe to be the first verifiable case of a significant and progressive motor neuron disease (MND) consistent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that resolved during treatment with i.v. ceftriaxone plus oral atovaquone and mefloquine. The rationale for use of these antibiotics was (i) positive testing for Borrelia burgdorferi and (ii) red blood cell ring forms consistent with Babesia species infection. The patient has continued to be free of MND signs and symptoms for 15 months, although some symptoms consistent with disseminated Borreliosis remain.
PMID: 17212618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other treatment.
Shoemaker RC, Hudnell HK, House DE, Van Kempen A, Pakes GE; COL40155 Study Team.
Center for Research on Biotoxin-Associated Illnesses Pocomoke City, Maryland 21851, USA.
Ten percent of US patients with Lyme disease are coinfected with Babesia microti. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial enrolled 25 patients with confirmed Borrelia burgdorferi/B microti coinfection, abnormal visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), and persistent symptoms despite prior treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin. Patients were randomly assigned to atovaquone suspension or placebo plus cholestyramine for 3 weeks, were crossed over for 3 weeks, and then received open-label atovaquone and cholestyramine for 6 weeks. Symptoms and VCS scores were recorded at baseline and after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Improvements in symptoms and VCS deficits were observed only after at least 9 weeks of treatment. At week 12, 5 patients were asymptomatic, and 16 had a notable reduction in the number of symptoms. The entire cohort demonstrated significant increases in VCS scores. Adverse effects were rare. Patients coinfected with B burgdorferi and B microti derive measurable clinical benefit from prolonged treatment with atovaquone and cholestyramine. Longer-term combination therapy may be indicated.
PMID: 16644602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Short report: cloning of the Babesia gibsoni cytochrome B gene and isolation of three single nucleotide polymorphisms from parasites present after atovaquone treatment.
Matsuu A, Miyamoto K, Ikadai H, Okano S, Higuchi S.
Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine 1, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
We determined the nucleotide sequence of the Babesia gibsoni cytochrome b (cytb) gene. DNA was extracted from B. gibsoni isolated from Aomori Prefecture, Japan, and 1,288 basepairs of the cytb gene, including 1,071 basepairs of the open reading frame, were sequenced. The cytb gene of B. gibsoni obtained from three dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. gibsoni and treated with atovaquone was also sequenced. The B. gibsoni cytb gene obtained from all three atovaquone-treated dogs contained a single polymorphism resulting in an amino acid change in one of the putative ubiquinone-binding sites of Plasmodium falciparum. This polymorphism was homologous to mutations in other apicomplexan protozoa that exhibit resistance to atovaquone. Two other single polymorphisms were identified in parasites isolated from two of the dogs. These results indicate that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sequence for mitochondrial cytb gene may be associated with decreased susceptibility of Babesia species to atovaquone.
PMID: 16606990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Chemotherapy against babesiosis.
Vial HJ, Gorenflot A.
Dynamique Moléculaire des Interactions Membranaires, UMR 5539 CNRS/Université Montpellier II, Case 107, Place EugŹne bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. email@example.com
Babesiosis is caused by a haemotropic protozoal parasite of the genus Babesia, member of the phylum Apicomplexa and transmitted by the bite of an infected tick. There are many Babesia species affecting livestock, dogs, horses and rodents which are of economic significance. Infections can occur without producing symptoms, but babesiosis may also be severe and sometimes fatal caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite development. The disease can cause fever, fatigue and haemolytic anemia lasting from several days to several months. There are a number of effective babesiacides, but imidocarb dipropionate (which consistently clears the parasitaemia; often the only available drug on the market) and diminazene aceturate are the most widely used. Some Babesia spp. can infect humans, particularly Babesia microti and Babesia divergens, and human babesiosis is a significant emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease. Clinical manifestations differ markedly between European and North American diseases. In clinical cases, a combination of clindamycin and quinine is administered as the standard treatment, but also administration of atovaquone-azithromycin is successful. Supportive therapy such as intravenous fluids and blood transfusions are employed when necessary. More specific fast-acting new treatments for babesiosis have now to be developed. This should be facilitated by the knowledge of the Babesia spp. genome and increased interest for this malaria-like parasite.
PMID: 16504402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Efficacy of atovaquone against Babesia gibsoni in vivo and in vitro.
Matsuu A, Koshida Y, Kawahara M, Inoue K, Ikadai H, Hikasa Y, Okano S, Higuchi S.
Department of Small Animal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The therapeutic efficacy of atovaquone against Babesia gibsoni was examined in three dogs experimentally infected with B. gibsoni isolated from naturally infected dogs in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Once parasitemia reached 10%, atovaquone was administered orally (30 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days). Within 2 days of atovaquone treatment, the parasite disappeared from blood smears without any clinical side effects. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were significantly improved in all the dogs. However, a polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that a B. gibsoni marker gene was intermittently present in peripheral blood after atovaquone therapy, indicating that the organism had not been eliminated, and parasites reappeared in blood smears 33 days after the last treatment. To investigate the change in sensitivity against atovaquone, an in vitro sensitivity test was performed using peripheral blood obtained from an untreated dog that was infected with the original parasite isolate, and from two of the experimentally infected and atovaquone-treated animals (blood was collected at the time of the post-treatment recurrence of the B. gibsoni infection). Atovaquone was added to the culture medium to final concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. For the untreated parasites, complete growth inhibition occurred at 1000 nM of atovaquone, whereas the recurrent parasites were inhibited by only 39.52 +/- 8.34% and 31.31 +/- 8.14% at this concentration after 48 h of incubation. Thus, the recurring parasites were less sensitive to atovaquone than the untreated originally isolated parasites.
PMID: 15350657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Efficacy of combined atovaquone and azithromycin for therapy of chronic Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections in dogs.
Birkenheuer AJ, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB.
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.
Babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) is an emerging disease in dogs in the United States. To date, no drugs have been shown to eliminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections from dogs. Twenty-two dogs that remained persistently infected with B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) after either imidocarb diproprionate and or diminazine aceturate therapy were identified and randomly and evenly distributed into 2 groups. One group was treated with atovaquone and azithromycin combination therapy, and the other group received a placebo. Eight of 10 dogs in the treatment group had no detectable B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) DNA, as determined by a sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, in any of their posttreatment samples. In contrast, B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) DNA was detectable by PCR in the posttreatment samples from 11 of 11 of the placebo-treated dogs. One dog in the treatment group was excluded from the treatment outcome analysis. This dog had 2 consecutive negative PCR assay results and was euthanized because of ongoing degenerative joint disease prior to completion of the study. No adverse effects of treatment were reported in any dog during the study period. A combination of atovaquone and azithromycin is the 1st described treatment that will either eliminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections or suppress the parasitemia below the limit of detection in the majority of treated dogs.
PMID: 15320586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Babesiosis diagnosis and treatment.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, USA. email@example.com
Human babesiosis due to Babesia microti is an emerging malaria-like infection that is endemic in parts of the northeastern and northcentral United States. The clinical manifestations of babesiosis range from subclinical illness to fulminant disease resulting in death. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is difficult because the signs and symptoms are non-specific. A CBC is a useful screening test since anemia and thrombocytopenia are commonly observed and parasites may be visualized on blood smear. Conclusive diagnosis of this disease generally depends upon microscopic examination of thin blood smears. Babesia frequently are overlooked, however, because parasitemia tends to be sparse, often infecting fewer than 1% of erythrocytes early in the course of the illness. Identification of amplifiable babesial DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has comparable sensitivity and specificity to microscopic analysis of thin blood smear for detection of babesia in blood. Serologic testing provides useful supplementary evidence of infection because a robust antibody response characterizes human babesial infection, even at the time that parasitemia first becomes detectable. The currently recommended therapy for babesiosis is a 7-10-day course of clindamycin (600 mg every 6 h) and quinine (650 mg every 8 h). Recently, azithromycin (500-600 mg on day 1, and 250-600 mg on subsequent days) and atovaquone (750 mg every 12 h) was found to be equally effective in treating adults experiencing babesiosis. This combination also was associated with fewer adverse reactions than clindamycin and quinine. Exchange transfusion is a potentially life-saving therapy for patients suffering from severe disease with high parasitemia (>5%), significant hemolysis, or renal or pulmonary compromise. Babesiosis may be prevented by avoiding areas such as tall grass and brush where ticks, deer, and mice are known to thrive.
PMID: 12804380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Babesiosis: An Update on Epidemiology and Treatment.
Gelfand JA, Callahan MV.
*Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Staniford Street, Suite # 801, Boston, MA 02114, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Babesiosis is caused by a tick-borne hemoparasite that, like malaria, can cause fever, hemolysis, and anemia. Typically self-limited, in the asplenic, immunocompromised, or elderly, disease can be severe or deadly. US cases have been primarily due to Babesia microti; WA-1, which may be related to Babesia gibsoni; and MO-1, related to Babesia divergens. European infections are usually due to B. divergens. North American cases are treated either with quinine and clindamycin or with atovaquone and azithromycin. The latter regimen appears less toxic.
PMID: 12525291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Babesiosis in humans: a treatment review.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Room 504 Forchheimer Building, Bronx, New York, 10461, USA. email@example.com
Human infections with Babesia species, in particular Babesia microti, are tick-borne illnesses that are being recognised with increased frequency. Coinfection with ehrlichiosis and Lyme disease is also being recognised as an important feature of these tick-borne illnesses. Despite the superficial resemblance of Babesia to malaria, these piroplasms do not respond to chloroquine or other similar drugs. However, the treatment of babesiosis using a clindamycin-quinine combination has been successful. Data in animal models and case-reports in humans have suggested that an atovaquone-azithromycin combination is also effective. This was confirmed in a recent prospective, open, randomised trial of clindamycin-quinine versus azithromycin-atovaquone. This paper reviews the literature on the treatment of human babesiosis and the animal models of these human pathogens.
PMID: 12150690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]