Picaridin, Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus & Permethrin
Picaridin or Bayrepel (KBR3023) appears to have been isolated in the 1980s.
Since 1998 it has been used in many countries, with extensive market shares in Europe and Australia.
The World Health Organization (WHO) seems to call it "Icaridin" in its 2004 monograph, and reports it is used in over 15 counties.
Multiple and diverse toxicology studies are available on the WHO site monograph at: www.who.int/whopes/quality/en/Icaridin_spec_eval_Oct_2004.pdf
The conclusion of extensive mammal and other testing is it can be "slightly hazardous" per the WHO.
The WHO proposes it as the very best protection against Malaria.
Mosquitoes have different varieties. Most studies show Picaridin is equal or even better than DEET in repelling mosquitos.
In lab experiments it also repelled some species of ticks. Which types of ticks tested and what percentages of varieties were repelled is unknown.
Cutter Advanced in the only preparation found in the USA. It is a 7% solution.
More details can be found at: www.cutterinsectrepellent.com/ProductCategories/PersonalRepellents/Advanced/
It does not damage cloths or furniture. It is odorless and "light" on the skin with no oily base, according to the manufacturer.
Because of fears of West Nile Virus, Lyme and the annoyance of mosquito's, biting flies, and other insects, it is likely many more forms of this product will appear on the USA market. The WHO organization seemed to be concerned that the quality of the Picaridin preparations be of the highest pharmaceutical caliber to prevent certain troublesome impurities from appearing.
Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus
Oil of lemon eucalyptus is registered with the EPA. In two recent scientific publications, when oil of lemon eucalyptus was tested against mosquitoes found in the US, it provided protection similar to repellents with low concentrations of DEET.
Oil of lemon eucalyptus has not been tested against mosquitoes that spread malaria, and I am unaware of how deer ticks and biting flies would respond.
As is listed in detail on this web site, permethrin is felt to be effective on non-body sites. For example, on your clothing, shoes, bed nets, and camping gear, and are registered with EPA for this use. Permethrin is highly effective as an insecticide and as a repellent. Permethrin-treated clothing actually kills ticks and mosquitoes. Routine laundering does not remove it or its insecticide ability.
Best To Your Health!