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Mycotoxin Sample Medical Concerns
From Small Sample of Literature

Symptoms of Ochratoxin Mycotoxin Exposure
With Bibliography
Compiled by Deborah Cazden, July 9, 2001
Sources: Aerotech Laboratories
Mycotoxin Prevention and Control in Foodgrains
PubMed
Symptoms of Ochratoxin exposure

NAME, SYMPTOM (description) (references)

  1. Anemia (low red blood cell count) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977; Huff et. al., 1979)
  2. Anorexia (loss of appetite, refusal to eat) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  3. Apoptosis (cell death) (Gekle, 2000; Schwerdt et. al., 1999; Schwerdt et. al. 2000)
  4. Carcinogenic (causes cancer) (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  5. Copper colored skin (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  6. Decreased Hemoglobin (Gupta et. al. 1979)
  7. Decreased lymphocytes (immune cells) (Muller, 1999; Verma and Mathew, 1998))
  8. Endemic Nephropathy (Peraica and Domijan; 2000, Krough, 1972)
  9. Fatigue (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  10. Headache (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  11. Increased apoptotic phagocytes (death of neutrophils and macrophages) (Muller, 1999)
  12. Increased clotting time (Gupta et. al. 1979)
  13. Increased eosinophils (cells that can trigger asthma attacks and immune response) (Muller, 1999)
  14. Increased leukocytes (white blood cells) (Muller, 1999)
  15. Increased Neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) (Muller, 1999)
  16. Increased reactive oxygen radicals (very powerful oxidizing agents that cause structural damage to proteins and nucleic acids) (Muller, 1999)
  17. Induces DNA adducts (may cause mutations in DNA) (leads to nucleotide substitutions, deletions, and chromosome rearrangements) (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  18. Inhibition of protein synthesis (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  19. Inhibits Phenylalanine hydroxylase (Zanic-Grubisic T, et al., 2000)
  20. Intermittent hematuria (blood in the urine) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  21. Lassitude (fatigue) (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  22. Nephrotoxic (causes kidney damage) (Burge and Ammann, 1999; Jakobsen, et al., 1993)
  23. Neurotoxin (damages parts of the brain) (esp. ventral mesencephalon and the cerebellum) (Belmadani A, et. al. 1999)
  24. Reduced phagocytosis (cells have a reduced ability to kill microorganisms in the body) (Muller, 1999)
  25. Suppresses the immune system (Baudrimont, et al., 1994)
  26. Teratogenic (causes birth defects) (Zanic-Grubisic T, et al., 2000)
  27. Urinary tract tumors (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)
  28. Yellow palms (Chernozemsky et al, 1977)

Bibliography

  • Baudrimont I, Betbeder AM, Gharbi A, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Dirheimer G, Creppy EE, "Effect of superoxide dismutase and catalase on the nephrotoxicity induced by subchronical administration of ochratoxin A in rats," Toxicology 1994 Apr 18;89(2):101-11
  • Belmadani A, Steyn PS, Tramu G, Betbeder AM, Baudrimont I, Creppy EE. "Selective toxicity of ochratoxin A in primary cultures from different brain regions." Arch Toxicol 1999 Mar;73(2):108-14
  • Burge, H.A. and Ammann, H.A., "Fungal Toxins and _(13)-D-Glucans. Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control." 1999 Edited by J. Macher, H.A. Ammann, H.A. Burge, D. K. Milton, and P.R. Morey (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists, Cincinnati, Ohio), pp. 24-1 24-13.
  • Chernozemsky, I.N., Stoyanov, I.S., Pet KoyaBocharova, T.K., Nocolov, l.G., Draganov, l.V., Stoichev, I.l., Tanchev, Y., Naidenoc. D., and Kaicheva, N.D. "Geographic correlation between the occurrence of endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Vratza district, Bulgaria." 1977 Int. J. Cancer 19: 1-11.
  • Gekle M, Schwerdt G, Freudinger R, Mildenberger S, Wilflingseder D, Pollack V, Dander M, Schramek H. "Ochratoxin A induces JNK activation and apoptosis in MDCK-C7 cells at nanomolar concentrations." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000 Jun;293(3):837-44
  • Gekle, M., G. Schwerdt, R. Freudinger, S. Mildenberger, D. Wilfingseder, V. Pollack, M. Dander and H. Schramek. "Ochratoxin A induces JNK activation and apoptosis in MDCK-C7 cells at nanomolar concentrations." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 293, 837-844, 2000
  • Gupta M, Bandopadhyay S, Paul B, Majumder SK. Hematological changes produced in mice by ochratoxin A. Toxicology 1979 Sep;14(1):95-8
  • Huff, W. E., C. F. Chang, M. F. Warren, and P. B. Hamilton. "Ochratoxin A-induced iron deficiency anemia." Appl. Microbiol. 37:601-604. 1979.
  • Jacobsen, B.J., Bowen, K.L., Shelby, R.A. Dicner, U.L., Kemppainen, B.W., and Floyd, J. 1993. "Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses." Circular ANR-767 (Alabama Cooperative Extension Service), 16pp.
  • Krogh P. "Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy: a possible model for Balkan endemic nephropathy." In: Puchlev E, editor. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Endemic Nephropathy; 9-11 Nov 1972; Sophia, Bulgaria. Sophia: Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; 1974. p 266-70.
  • Muller G, Kielstein P, Rosner H, Berndt A, Heller M, Kohler H. "Studies of the influence of ochratoxin A on immune and defence reactions in weaners," Mycoses 1999;42(7-8):495-505
  • Peraica M, Domijan AM. "Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health." Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35
  • Schwerdt, G., R. Freudinger, C. Schuster, S. Silbernagl and M. Gekle. "Apoptosis in cultured renal epithelial cells caused by ochratoxin A." Mycotoxin Research 16A, 154-157, 2000 (Proceedings 22nd Mycotoxin-Workshop Bonn 2000)
  • Schwerdt, G., R. Freudinger, S. Mildenberger, S. Silbernagl and Gekle, M. "The nephrotoxin ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells." Cell Biol. Toxicol. 15, 405-415, 1999
  • Verma RJ, Mathew S., "Alterations in total and differential counts of WBC during ochratoxicosis in rabbits," Indian J Exp Biol 1998 Apr;36(4):424-5
  • Zanic-Grubisic T, Zrinski R, Cepelak I, Petrik J, Radic B, Pepeljnjak S., "Studies of ochratoxin A-induced inhibition of phenylalanine hydroxylase and its reversal by phenylalanine," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000 Sep 1;167(2):132-9

Symptoms of Aflatoxin Mycotoxin Exposure with Bibliography
Compiled by Deborah Cazden July 9, 2001
Sources:
http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1018.5/index.html
http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html
Symptoms of aflatoxin exposure

NAME, SYMPTOM (description) (references)

  1. Abdominal pain (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  2. Alveolar injury (Injury to the air sacs in the lungs) (Coulombe et al., 1991; Coulombe, 1993; Jakab et al., 1994)
  3. Bile duct hyperplasia (pre-cancerous increase in the number of cells of the bile duct) (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  4. Bile duct metaplasia (change in the cell structure of the cells in the bile duct) (Chao et al., 1991)
  5. Brain injury (Schafer and Sorrel, 1997)
  6. Cancer (Steyn, 1995; Coulombe et al., 1991, McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981)
  7. Carbohydrate metabolism impaired (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  8. Catecholamine levels decrease (such as epinephrine, adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine) (Kimbrough, Llewellyn, and Weekley, 1992)
  9. Centrilobular coagulative necrosis (cell death in the central region of the kidney) (Chao et al., 1991)
  10. Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  11. Coma (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Bourgeois et al., 1971a; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Smith and Moss, 1985)
  12. Convulsions (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Smith and Moss, 1985)
  13. Corrhachia (as related to Reyes syndrome) (Reye et al. 1951, 1962)
  14. Cough (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  15. Dark Urine
  16. Death (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b)
  17. Diarrhea (Bourgeois et al., 1971a; Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  18. Fatty degeneration of heart muscle (especially atrial and conduction systems) (Bourgeois, Olson, et al., 1971)
  19. Fatty degeneration of the liver (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  20. Fatty infiltrations heart (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  21. Fatty infiltrations kidney (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  22. Fatty infiltrations of liver (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  23. Fever (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991; Smith and Moss, 1985)
  24. Hematemesis (throwing up blood) (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  25. Hepatic glycogen stores are depleted (reduced amounts of glycogen in the liver) (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  26. Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) (Nigam et al., 1994, Groopman et al., 1996)
  27. High blood sugar (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  28. Hypoglycemia (as related to Reyes syndrome) (Reye et al. 1951, 1962)
  29. Immunosuppression (Griffiths et al., 1996; Jakab et al., 1994; Raisuddin et al., 1993; Cysewski et al., 1978; Dimitri and Gabal, 1996)
  30. Impaired child development (Groopman et al., 1996)
  31. Impaired child health (Groopman et al., 1996)
  32. Impaired nutritional intake (Guengerich et al., 1996)
  33. Impairs cell-mediated immunity (Griffiths et al., 1996; Raisuddin et al., 1993; Cysewski et al., 1978; Dimitri and Gabal, 1996)
  34. Impairs humoral immunity (Griffiths et al., 1996; Raisuddin et al., 1993; Cysewski et al., 1978; Dimitri and Gabal, 1996)
  35. Increased infections (Groopman et al., 1996)
  36. Jaundice
  37. Lipid metabolism impaired (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  38. Liver cancer (Massey, 1996; Autrup et al., 1993; Coulombe, 1993)
  39. Liver encephalopathy (damage to the brain and nervous system as a complication of liver disorders) (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  40. Liver failure (Chao et al., 1991; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al.,1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  41. Liver failure and associated disorders (e.g., Reyes syndrome) (Schafer and Sorrel, 1997)
  42. Liver injury (Fernandez, Ramos, et al., 1995; Fernandez, Verde, et al., 1995)
  43. Low blood sugar (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  44. Lung cancer (Massey, 1996; Autrup et al., 1993; Coulombe, 1993)
  45. Lysis of lymphatic tissues (rupture of the cells in the blood stream) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  46. Macrovesicular steatosis (fatty degeneration of ________________) (Chao et al., 1991)
  47. Mitogenic (causes cells to divide) (Griffiths, Rea, et al., 1996).
  48. Nausea (Chao et al., 1991; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b)
  49. Neuronolysis (rupture of nerve cells) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  50. Prolonged prothrombin times (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  51. Pulmonary hemorrhage (bleeding in the lungs) (Coulombe et al., 1991; Coulombe, 1993; Jakab et al., 1994)
  52. Renal failure (kidney failure) (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  53. Reoccurring infections (Jakab et al., 1994; Raisuddin et al., 1993)
  54. Reproductive problems (Coulombe, 1993; Aulerich et al., 1993; Bonomi et al., 1995)
  55. Respiratory distress (difficulty breathing) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  56. Respiratory failure (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  57. Respiratory injury (Chao et al., 1991; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b)
  58. Seizures (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b; Lye et al., 1995; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  59. Seratonin levels decrease (Kimbrough, Llewellyn, and Weekley, 1992)
  60. Serum transaminases elevated (elevated transaminases in the blood) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  61. Teratogen (causes birth defects) (Raisuddin et al., 1993)
  62. Tracheal epithelial damage (damage to the lining of the trachea) (Coulombe et al., 1991; Coulombe, 1993; Jakab et al., 1994)
  63. Tremorgenic (causes tremors) (Land et al. 1984)
  64. Vomiting (Chao et al. 1991; Chao, 1992; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b; Smith and Moss, 1985)

Bibliography

  • Aulerich RJ, Bursian SJ, and Watson GL, "Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Aflatoxins on the Reproductive Performance of Mink," Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 50, 1993, pp. 750-756.
  • Autrup H, and Seremet T, "Evidence of Human Antibodies That Recognize Aflatoxin Epitope in Groups with High and Low Exposure to Aflatoxins," Archives of Environmental Health, 45, 1990, pp. 31-36.
  • Autrup JL, Schmidt J, and Autrup H, "Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Animal-Feed Production Plant Workers," Environ Health Perspect, 99, 1993, pp. 195-197.
  • Bonomi A, Quarantelli A, Zambin EM, et al., "Effects of Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Rations on Productive and Reproductive Efficiency in Swine (Experimental Contribution)," Rivista Di Scienza Dell'Alimentazione, 24, 1995, pp. 361-384.
  • Bourgeois C, Olson L, Comer D, Evans H, et al., "Encephalophy and Fatty Degeneration of the Viscera: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 40 Cases," Am J Clin Pathol, 56, 1971, pp. 558-571.
  • Bourgeois C, Shank RC, Grossman RA, Johnsen DO, and Wooding WL, Chandavimol P, "Acute Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity in the Macaque and Its Similarities to Reye's Syndrome," Lab Invest, 24, 1971, pp. 206-16.
  • Chao TC, "Perak, Malaysia, Mass Poisoning: Tale of the Nine Emperor Gods and Rat Tail Noodles," Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 13, 1992, pp. 261-263.
  • Chao TC, Maxwell SM, Lyen K, Wang D, and Chia HK, "Mass Poisoning in Perak, Malaysia or the Tale of the Nine Emperor Gods and Rat Tail Noodles," J Forensic Sci Soc, 31, 1991, pp. 283-288.
  • Coulombe RA, Jr., "Symposium: Biological Action of Mycotoxins," J Dairy Sci, 76, 1993, pp. 880-891.
  • Coulombe RAJ, Huie JM, Ball RW, Sharma RP, and Wilson DW, "Pharmacokinetics of Intratracheally Administered Aflatoxin B1," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 109, 1991, pp. 196-206.
  • Cysewski SJ, Wood RL, Pier AC, and Baetz AL, "Effects of Aflatoxin on the Development of Acquired Immunity to Swine Erysipelas," Am J Vet Res, 39, 1978, pp. 445-8.
  • Dimitri RA, and Gabal MA, "Immunosuppressant Activity of Aflatoxin Ingestion in Rabbits Measured by Response to Mycobacterium Bovix Antigen, I. Cell Mediated Immune Response Measured by Skin Test Reaction," Vet Hum Toxicol, 38, 1996, pp. 333-6.
  • Fernandez A, Ramos JJ, Saez T, Sanz MC, and Verde MT, "Changes in the Coagulation Profile of Lambs Intoxicated with Aflatoxin in Their Feed," Vet Res, 26, 1995, pp. 180-184.
  • Fernandez A, Verde MT, Gomez J, Gascon M, and Ramos JJ, "Changes in the Prothrombin Time, Haematology and Serum Proteins During Experimental Aflatoxicosis in Hens and Broiler Chickens," Res Vet Sci, 58, 1995, pp. 119-122.
  • Griffiths GD, Allenby AC, Bailey SC, Hambrook JL, Rice P, and Upshall DG, The Inhalation Toxicity of Ricin Purified `In-House' from the Seeds of Ricinus Communis Var, Zanzibariensis, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK: Ministry of Defense, 1994.
  • Griffiths GD, Lindsay CD, Allenby AC, et al., "Protection Against Inhalation Toxicity of Ricin and Abrin by Immunization," Hum Exp Toxicol, 14, 1995, pp. 155-164.
  • Griffiths BB, Rea WJ, Johnson AR, and Ross GH, "Mitogenic Effects of Mycotoxins on T4 Lymphocytes," Microbios, 86, 1996, pp. 127-134.
  • Groopman JD, Scholl P, and Wang JS, "Epidemiology of Human Aflatoxin Exposures and Their Relationship to Liver Cancer," Prog Clin Biol Res, 395, 1996, pp. 211-222.
  • Guengerich FP, Johnson WW, et al., "Involvement of Cytochrome P450 Glutathione S-Transferase and Epoxide Hydrolase in the Metabolism of Aflatoxin B1 and Relevance to Risk of Human Liver Cancer," Environ Health Perspect, 104 (Suppl 3), 1996, pp. 557-562.
  • Harrison JC, and Garner RC, "Immunological and HPLC Detection of Aflatoxin Adducts in Human Tissues After an Acute Poisoning Incident in S.E. Asia," Carcinogenesis, 12, 1991, pp. 741-743.
  • Jakab GJ, Hmieleski RR, Zarba A, Hemenway DR, and Groopman JD, "Respiratory Aflatoxicosis: Suppression of Pulmonary and Systemic Host Defenses in Rats and Mice," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 125, 1994, pp. 198-205.
  • Kimbrough TD, Llewellyn GC, and Weekley LB, "The Effect of Aflatoxin B1 Exposure on Seratonin Metabolism," Metabolic Brain Disease, 1992, pp. 175-182.
  • Lye MS, Ghazali AA, Mohan J, Alwin N, and Nair RC, "An Outbreak of Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Due to Severe Aflatoxicosis in Malaysia," Am J Tropical Medicine & Hygeine, 53, 1995, pp. 68-72.
  • Massey TE, "Cellular and Molecular Targets in Pulmonary Chemical Carcinogenesis: Studies with Aflatoxin B1," Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 74, 1996, pp. 621-628.
  • McLean M, and Dutton MF, "Cellular Interactions and Metabolism of Aflatoxin: An Update," Pharmacol Ther, 65, 1995, pp. 163-192.
  • Nigam SK, Ghosh SK, and Malaviya R, "Aflatoxin, Its Metabolism and Carcinogenesis--A Historical Review," J Toxicol Toxin Rev, 13, 1994, pp. 179-203.
  • Northup SW, McKenzie W, Thurston R, Hess R, and Kilburn K, Aflatoxin "Effects on Airway Cells in Rodents," abstract, Fed Proc, 34, 1995, p. 839.
  • Raisuddin S, Singh KP, Zaidi SI, Paul BN, and Ray PK, "Immunosuppressive Effects of Aflatoxin in Growing Rats," Mycopathologia, 124, 1993, pp. 189-194.
  • Schafer DF, and Sorrell MF, "Power Failure, Liver Failure," New Engl J Med, 336, 1997, pp. 1173-1174.
  • Smith, J.E.; Moss, M.O. 1985. Mycotoxins Formation, Analysis, and Significance John Wiley and Sons. NY.
  • Steyn PS, "Mycotoxins, General View, Chemistry and Structure," Toxicol Lett, 82-83, 1995, pp. 843-845.
  • Tutelyan VA, and Kravchenko LV, New Data on Metabolism and Action Mechanism of Mycotoxins, Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, trans. from Russian, 1981, pp. 88-89.
  • Verma RJ, Choudhary SB, "Hypercalcaemia During Aflatoxicosis," Med Sci Res, 1995.

Symptoms of Trichothecene Mycotoxin Exposure
(T-2 toxin, and other Trichothecenes)
with Bibliography
Compiled by Deborah Cazden April 22, 2001
Sources:
http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1018.5/index.html
http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html
Symptoms of Trichothecene exposure

NAME, SYMPTOM (description) (references)

  1. Abdominal pain (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Stahl et al., 1985; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  2. Acute myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  3. Acute renal tubular necrosis (damage to the renal tubule cells) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  4. Adrenal cortical necrosis (death of the outer level of the adrenal gland) (Thurman et al., 1986).
  5. Affects hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels (Wang, Wilson, and Fitzpatrick, 1992).
  6. Affects seratonin levels (Wang, Wilson, and Fitzpatrick, 1992).
  7. Alimentary toxic aleukia (Ueno et al., 1984). Mayer 1953a, 1953 b; Lutsky et al., 1978).
  8. Alopecia (hair loss) (Croft et al.,1986; Jarvis, 1985)
  9. Alterations in hemostasis (clotting) (Cosgriff et al., 1986).
  10. Anariax (anaphylaxia, anoxic?) coma (allergic or lack of oxygen) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  11. Anorexia (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  12. Anxiety (Yap et al., 1979; Thigpen et al., 1981; Bukowski et al., 1982).
  13. Aphonia (loss of hearing) (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  14. Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm) (Ueno et al., 1984; Stahl et al., 1985),
  15. Bleeding gums (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  16. Bleeding tendency (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  17. Blisters (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  18. Blurred vision (Bunner, 1983).
  19. Bone marrow aplasia (bone marrow stops producing blood cells) (Mayer 1953a, 1953b)
  20. Bone marrow injury (Mayer 1953a, 1953b; Ueno et al., 1984).
  21. Breath holding (Otto et al., 1989)
  22. Breathlessness (Kemppainen et al., 1986b; Hendy and Cole, 1993; Jarvis, 1985).
  23. Burning erythema (red skin with a burning sensation) (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  24. Burning of the skin (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  25. Burning stomatitis (burning sensation of the mouth) (Schiefer and Hancock, 1984; Murphy et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Diggs et al., 1978; Belt et al., 1979; Yap et al., 1979; Thigpen et al., 1981; Goodwin et al., 1981).
  26. Cardiac injury (heart injury) (Bunner, 1983).
  27. Cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) (Coppock et al., 1985)
  28. Chest pain (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  29. Chills (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  30. CNS dysfunction (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  31. CNS toxicity ( Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Bunner et al., 1985; and Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  32. Cold and flu symptoms (Croft et al.,1986; Jarvis, 1985)
  33. Confusion (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  34. Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eye) (Bunner, 1983).
  35. Corneal changes (changes in the cornea of the eye) (Bunner, 1983).
  36. Corneal thinning (Bunner, 1983).
  37. Cough (Croft et al.,1986; Jarvis, 1985)
  38. Cramps (Bunner, 1983).
  39. Cytolysis (rupturing of cell membranes) (Lee et al., 1984; Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980).
  40. Death (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  41. Decreased attention (Otto et al., 1989)
  42. Decreased coagulation factors (blood does not clot properly) (Yarom et al., 1984).
  43. Decreased learning (Umeuchi et al., 1996).
  44. Decreased sperm production
  45. Decreased vision (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  46. Depressed immunoglobulin levels (immune system not functioning) (Jagadeesan et al., 1982; Schiefer, 1984; Ueno et al., 1984).
  47. Depression (Thigpen et al., 1981; Yap et al., 1979; Croft et al., 1986; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Crossland and Townsend, 1984)
  48. Dermatitis (inflammation or irritation of the skin) (Kemppainen et al., 1986b; Hendy and Cole, 1993; Jarvis, 1985).
  49. Diarrhea (Ueno et al., 1984).
  50. Diffuse hepatitis (widespread inflammation of the liver) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  51. Dilation of surface blood vessels (causes reddening of the skin) (Otto et al., 1989)
  52. Diminished reflex time (Otto et al., 1989)
  53. Disorientation (Otto et al., 1989)
  54. Dizziness (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  55. Drowsiness (Yap et al., 1979; Thigpen et al., 1981; Bukowski et al., 1982).
  56. Dyspnea (shortness of breath) (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  57. ECG prolonged P-R intervals (Ueno et al., 1984; Stahl et al., 1985),
  58. ECG prolonged QRS and QRT intervals (Ueno et al., 1984; Stahl et al., 1985),
  59. Edema (swelling due to extra fluid in the body) (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  60. Elevated serum creatine-kinase (too much creatine-kinase in the blood) (Bunner, 1983).
  61. Epithelial necrosis (death of epithelial cells i.e. skin) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  62. Eye injury (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Bunner et al., 1985; and Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  63. Eye pain (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  64. Eyelid edema (swelling of the eyelid) (Bunner, 1983).
  65. Fatigue (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  66. Fetal abnormalities (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Stahl et al., 1985; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  67. Fever (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  68. Fibrinous exudate (fibrin escaping from the blood vessels) (Goodwin et al., 1981).
  69. Gastroenteritis (acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  70. Gastrointestinal toxicity (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Bunner et al., 1985; and Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  71. Gastrointestinal tract necrosis (toxicity of the stomach and intestines) (Coppock et al., 1985)
  72. Hallucinations (false perception of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch) (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  73. Headaches (Croft et al.,1986; Jarvis, 1985)
  74. Hematemesis (throwing up blood) (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  75. Hematological toxicity (blood toxicity) (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Bunner et al., 1985; and Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  76. Hemorrhagic bullae (large blisters that pop easily) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  77. Hemorrhagic diathesis (bleeding tendency) (Ueno et al., 1984).
  78. Hemorrhagic foci (group of cells prone to hemorrhaging) (Ueno et al., 1984; Stahl et al., 1985),
  79. Hemoptysis (spitting up blood) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  80. Hyperglycemia (too much sugar in the blood) (Coppock et al., 1985)
  81. Hyperpigmentation (unusual skin darkening in a specific area) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  82. Hypotension (low blood pressure) (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  83. Hypothermia (low body temperature) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  84. Hypoxia (low oxygen in the arteries) (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  85. Immunosupression (immune system dysfunction) (Ueno, 1983; Yarom et al., 1984; Jagadeesan et al., 1982).
  86. Impairment of ribosome function (NAS, 1983; Coulombe, 1993; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981)
  87. Impotence (inability to achieve erection or ejaculation) (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Stahl et al., 1985; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  88. Increased partial thromboplastin times blood test (Yarom et al., 1984).
  89. Increased prothrombin times (increased clotting time) (Yarom et al., 1984).
  90. Increased vascular fragility (blood vessels are more fragile) (Smith and Moss, 1985).
  91. Induction of reparable single strand DNA breaks
  92. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis (Pace et al., 1985)
  93. Inhibition of platelet aggregation (Yarom et al., 1984).
  94. Inhibition of protein synthesis (Ueno, 1983; Ueno et al., 1984; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981)
  95. Inhibition of thiol enzymes (Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Ueno et al., 1984)
  96. Inhibition on DNA synthesis (Thompson and Wannemacher, 1984)
  97. Interstitial myocardial hemorrhage (hemmhorage in between the myocardium) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  98. Itching (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  99. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes from excess bilirubin in the blood) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  100. Joint pain (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  101. Leukopenia (shortage of white blood cells) (Ueno et al., 1984).
  102. Lymphatic changes (changes in the lymph system) (Schiefer, 1984; Wannemacher et al., 1983).
  103. Malaise (vague feeling of discomfort, or that something is not right) (Thigpen et al., 1981; Yap et al., 1979; Croft et al., 1986; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Crossland and Townsend, 1984)
  104. Melena (blood in the stool) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  105. Memory loss (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  106. Memory problems (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  107. Meningeal bleeding (bleeding in the meninges of the brain) (Ueno et al., 1984).
  108. Micronodular cirrhosis (complication of liver disease) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  109. Muscle injury (Bunner, 1983).
  110. Myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow activity) (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  111. Nasal itching (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  112. Nasal stuffiness (Bell, et al., 1993a; Bell et al., 1993b)
  113. Nausea (Ueno et al., 1984).
  114. Neuropsychiatric manifestations (neurobiological brain disorders) (Forgacs, 1972)
  115. Neurotoxic (brain and nerve toxin) (Thigpen et al., 1981; Yap et al., 1979; Croft et al., 1986; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Crossland and Townsend, 1984)
  116. Numbness (Schiefer and Hancock, 1984; Murphy et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Diggs et al., 1978; Belt et al., 1979; Yap et al., 1979; Thigpen et al., 1981; Goodwin et al., 1981).
  117. Oral mucosal necrosis (death of tissue in the mouth) (Mayer 1953a, 1953b)
  118. Orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure when lying down) (Yap et al., 1979; Thigpen et al., 1981; Murphy et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982).
  119. Pain (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  120. Pancreatic damage (Coppock et al., 1985)
  121. Paresthesia (abnormal sensations, such as numbness, tingling, or burning ) (Otto et al., 1989)
  122. Petechial rashes (rash caused by bleeding under the skin) (Ueno et al., 1984).
  123. Prolonged rashes (Schultz, 1982)
  124. Pulmonary collapse (lung collapse) (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  125. Pulmonary consolidation (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  126. Pulmonary edema (swelling of the lung) (Stahl, Green, and Farnum, 1985).
  127. Pulmonary fibrosis (Scarring throughout the lungs) (Goodwin et al., 1981).
  128. Pulmonary hemorrhage (bleeding in the lungs) (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  129. Rashes (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  130. Red eyes (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  131. Reduced concentration (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Stahl et al., 1985; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  132. Regional norepinephrine increases (Wang, Wilson, and Fitzpatrick, 1992).
  133. Reoccurant infections (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  134. Respiratory distress (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  135. Respiratory illness (Croft et al., 1986; Jarvis, 1985)
  136. Respiratory toxicity (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Bunner et al., 1985; and Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  137. Rhinorrhea (runny nose) (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  138. Scleral inflammation (inflammation of the sclera in the eye) (Bunner, 1983).
  139. Seizures (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  140. Sepsis (infection of the blood stream) (Ueno et al., 1984).
  141. Shock (Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980; Lutsky et al., 1978; Bunner, 1983; Bunner et al. 1985).
  142. Skin crawling (Otto et al., 1989)
  143. Skin injury (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Bunner et al., 1985; and Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  144. Sloughing of gastric epithelium (shedding of the epithelium in the stomach) (Lee et al., 1984; Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980).
  145. Sloughing of gastric villus tips (shedding of the villus tips in the stomach) (Lee et al., 1984; Rukmini, Prasad, and Rao, 1980).
  146. Somnolence (feeling drowsy) (Belt et al., 1979; Murphy et al., 1978; Yap, et al., 1979; Diggs et al., 1978; Bukowski et al., 1982; Thigpen et al., 1981; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  147. Sore throats (Croft et al.,1986; Jarvis, 1985)
  148. Spontaneous abortion (Haig, 1982; Schultz, 1982; Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984; Stahl et al., 1985; Crossland and Townsend, 1984).
  149. Suppressed cell-mediated immunity (Jagadeesan et al., 1982; Schiefer, 1984; Ueno et al., 1984).
  150. Tachycardia (fast heart beat) (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  151. Tearing (Bunner, 1983).
  152. Thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets in the blood) (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  153. Thymus changes (Schiefer, 1984; Wannemacher et al., 1983).
  154. Tingling (Wannemacher and Wiener, 1997).
  155. Trembling (Watson, Mirocha, and Hayes, 1984).
  156. Vasodilatation (widening of the blood vessels) (Ueno et al., 1984; Stahl et al., 1985),
  157. Vomiting (Ueno et al., 1984).
  158. Weakness (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  159. Weight loss (Creasia et al., 1987; Bonomi et al., 1995; Wannemacher et al., 1993; Schiefer and Hancock, 1984)
  160. Wheezing (Kemppainen et al., 1986b; Hendy and Cole, 1993; Jarvis, 1985).

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