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Symptoms of Aflatoxin Mycotoxin Exposure

with Bibliography

Compiled by Deborah Cazden July 9, 2001

Sources:
http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1018.5/index.html
http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html

© 2001 Deborah Cazden, All rights reserved,

Disclaimer This document is not meant to diagnose a health problem it is simply a tool. Please consult with your regular doctor if you have a health concern. No guarantee is implied by the use of this document. All information contained here is accurate to the best of my knowledge, but since the compilation is from other sources, I cannot guarantee all the information is correct.

Symptoms of aflatoxin exposure

NAME, SYMPTOM (description) (references)

  1. Abdominal pain (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  2. Alveolar injury (Injury to the air sacs in the lungs) (Coulombe et al., 1991; Coulombe, 1993; Jakab et al., 1994)
  3. Bile duct hyperplasia (pre-cancerous increase in the number of cells of the bile duct) (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  4. Bile duct metaplasia (change in the cell structure of the cells in the bile duct) (Chao et al., 1991)
  5. Brain injury (Schafer and Sorrel, 1997)
  6. Cancer (Steyn, 1995; Coulombe et al., 1991, McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981)
  7. Carbohydrate metabolism impaired (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  8. Catecholamine levels decrease (such as epinephrine, adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine) (Kimbrough, Llewellyn, and Weekley, 1992)
  9. Centrilobular coagulative necrosis (cell death in the central region of the kidney) (Chao et al., 1991)
  10. Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  11. Coma (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Bourgeois et al., 1971a; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Smith and Moss, 1985)
  12. Convulsions (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Smith and Moss, 1985)
  13. Corrhachia (as related to Reyes syndrome) (Reye et al. 1951, 1962)
  14. Cough (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  15. Dark Urine
  16. Death (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b)
  17. Diarrhea (Bourgeois et al., 1971a; Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  18. Fatty degeneration of heart muscle (especially atrial and conduction systems) (Bourgeois, Olson, et al., 1971)
  19. Fatty degeneration of the liver (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  20. Fatty infiltrations heart (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  21. Fatty infiltrations kidney (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  22. Fatty infiltrations of liver (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  23. Fever (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991; Smith and Moss, 1985)
  24. Hematemesis (throwing up blood) (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  25. Hepatic glycogen stores are depleted (reduced amounts of glycogen in the liver) (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  26. Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) (Nigam et al., 1994, Groopman et al., 1996)
  27. High blood sugar (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  28. Hypoglycemia (as related to Reyes syndrome) (Reye et al. 1951, 1962)
  29. Immunosuppression (Griffiths et al., 1996; Jakab et al., 1994; Raisuddin et al., 1993; Cysewski et al., 1978; Dimitri and Gabal, 1996)
  30. Impaired child development (Groopman et al., 1996)
  31. Impaired child health (Groopman et al., 1996)
  32. Impaired nutritional intake (Guengerich et al., 1996)
  33. Impairs cell-mediated immunity (Griffiths et al., 1996; Raisuddin et al., 1993; Cysewski et al., 1978; Dimitri and Gabal, 1996)
  34. Impairs humoral immunity (Griffiths et al., 1996; Raisuddin et al., 1993; Cysewski et al., 1978; Dimitri and Gabal, 1996)
  35. Increased infections (Groopman et al., 1996)
  36. Jaundice
  37. Lipid metabolism impaired (McLean and Dutton, 1995; Tutelyan and Kravchenko, 1981; Verma and Choudhary, 1995)
  38. Liver cancer (Massey, 1996; Autrup et al., 1993; Coulombe, 1993)
  39. Liver encephalopathy (damage to the brain and nervous system as a complication of liver disorders) (Bourgeois et al., 1971a)
  40. Liver failure (Chao et al., 1991; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al.,1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  41. Liver failure and associated disorders (e.g., Reyes syndrome) (Schafer and Sorrel, 1997)
  42. Liver injury (Fernandez, Ramos, et al., 1995; Fernandez, Verde, et al., 1995)
  43. Low blood sugar (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  44. Lung cancer (Massey, 1996; Autrup et al., 1993; Coulombe, 1993)
  45. Lysis of lymphatic tissues (rupture of the cells in the blood stream) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  46. Macrovesicular steatosis (fatty degeneration of ________________) (Chao et al., 1991)
  47. Mitogenic (causes cells to divide) (Griffiths, Rea, et al., 1996).
  48. Nausea (Chao et al., 1991; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b)
  49. Neuronolysis (rupture of nerve cells) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  50. Prolonged prothrombin times (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  51. Pulmonary hemorrhage (bleeding in the lungs) (Coulombe et al., 1991; Coulombe, 1993; Jakab et al., 1994)
  52. Renal failure (kidney failure) (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  53. Reoccurring infections (Jakab et al., 1994; Raisuddin et al., 1993)
  54. Reproductive problems (Coulombe, 1993; Aulerich et al., 1993; Bonomi et al., 1995)
  55. Respiratory distress (difficulty breathing) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  56. Respiratory failure (Chao et al., 1991; Lye et al., 1995; Chao, 1992; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  57. Respiratory injury (Chao et al., 1991; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b)
  58. Seizures (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b; Lye et al., 1995; Harrison and Garner, 1991)
  59. Seratonin levels decrease (Kimbrough, Llewellyn, and Weekley, 1992)
  60. Serum transaminases elevated (elevated transaminases in the blood) (Chao et al., 1991; Chao, 1992)
  61. Teratogen (causes birth defects) (Raisuddin et al., 1993)
  62. Tracheal epithelial damage (damage to the lining of the trachea) (Coulombe et al., 1991; Coulombe, 1993; Jakab et al., 1994)
  63. Tremorgenic (causes tremors) (Land et al. 1984)
  64. Vomiting (Chao et al. 1991; Chao, 1992; Northup et al., 1995; Jakab et al., 1994; Bourgeois, 1971a, 1971b; Smith and Moss, 1985)

Bibliography

Aulerich RJ, Bursian SJ, and Watson GL, "Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Aflatoxins on the Reproductive Performance of Mink," Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 50, 1993, pp. 750-756.

Autrup H, and Seremet T, "Evidence of Human Antibodies That Recognize Aflatoxin Epitope in Groups with High and Low Exposure to Aflatoxins," Archives of Environmental Health, 45, 1990, pp. 31-36.

Autrup JL, Schmidt J, and Autrup H, "Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Animal-Feed Production Plant Workers," Environ Health Perspect, 99, 1993, pp. 195-197.

Bonomi A, Quarantelli A, Zambin EM, et al., "Effects of Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Rations on Productive and Reproductive Efficiency in Swine (Experimental Contribution)," Rivista Di Scienza Dell'Alimentazione, 24, 1995, pp. 361-384.

Bourgeois C, Olson L, Comer D, Evans H, et al., "Encephalophy and Fatty Degeneration of the Viscera: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 40 Cases," Am J Clin Pathol, 56, 1971, pp. 558-571.

Bourgeois C, Shank RC, Grossman RA, Johnsen DO, and Wooding WL, Chandavimol P, "Acute Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity in the Macaque and Its Similarities to Reye's Syndrome," Lab Invest, 24, 1971, pp. 206-16.

Chao TC, "Perak, Malaysia, Mass Poisoning: Tale of the Nine Emperor Gods and Rat Tail Noodles," Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 13, 1992, pp. 261-263.

Chao TC, Maxwell SM, Lyen K, Wang D, and Chia HK, "Mass Poisoning in Perak, Malaysia or the Tale of the Nine Emperor Gods and Rat Tail Noodles," J Forensic Sci Soc, 31, 1991, pp. 283-288.

Coulombe RA, Jr., "Symposium: Biological Action of Mycotoxins," J Dairy Sci, 76, 1993, pp. 880-891.

Coulombe RAJ, Huie JM, Ball RW, Sharma RP, and Wilson DW, "Pharmacokinetics of Intratracheally Administered Aflatoxin B1," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 109, 1991, pp. 196-206.

Cysewski SJ, Wood RL, Pier AC, and Baetz AL, "Effects of Aflatoxin on the Development of Acquired Immunity to Swine Erysipelas," Am J Vet Res, 39, 1978, pp. 445-8.

Dimitri RA, and Gabal MA, "Immunosuppressant Activity of Aflatoxin Ingestion in Rabbits Measured by Response to Mycobacterium Bovix Antigen, I. Cell Mediated Immune Response Measured by Skin Test Reaction," Vet Hum Toxicol, 38, 1996, pp. 333-6.

Fernandez A, Ramos JJ, Saez T, Sanz MC, and Verde MT, "Changes in the Coagulation Profile of Lambs Intoxicated with Aflatoxin in Their Feed," Vet Res, 26, 1995, pp. 180-184.

Fernandez A, Verde MT, Gomez J, Gascon M, and Ramos JJ, "Changes in the Prothrombin Time, Haematology and Serum Proteins During Experimental Aflatoxicosis in Hens and Broiler Chickens," Res Vet Sci, 58, 1995, pp. 119-122.

Griffiths GD, Allenby AC, Bailey SC, Hambrook JL, Rice P, and Upshall DG, The Inhalation Toxicity of Ricin Purified `In-House' from the Seeds of Ricinus Communis Var, Zanzibariensis, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK: Ministry of Defense, 1994.

Griffiths GD, Lindsay CD, Allenby AC, et al., "Protection Against Inhalation Toxicity of Ricin and Abrin by Immunization," Hum Exp Toxicol, 14, 1995, pp. 155-164.

Griffiths BB, Rea WJ, Johnson AR, and Ross GH, "Mitogenic Effects of Mycotoxins on T4 Lymphocytes," Microbios, 86, 1996, pp. 127-134.

Groopman JD, Scholl P, and Wang JS, "Epidemiology of Human Aflatoxin Exposures and Their Relationship to Liver Cancer," Prog Clin Biol Res, 395, 1996, pp. 211-222.

Guengerich FP, Johnson WW, et al., "Involvement of Cytochrome P450 Glutathione S-Transferase and Epoxide Hydrolase in the Metabolism of Aflatoxin B1 and Relevance to Risk of Human Liver Cancer," Environ Health Perspect, 104 (Suppl 3), 1996, pp. 557-562.

Harrison JC, and Garner RC, "Immunological and HPLC Detection of Aflatoxin Adducts in Human Tissues After an Acute Poisoning Incident in S.E. Asia," Carcinogenesis, 12, 1991, pp. 741-743.

Jakab GJ, Hmieleski RR, Zarba A, Hemenway DR, and Groopman JD, "Respiratory Aflatoxicosis: Suppression of Pulmonary and Systemic Host Defenses in Rats and Mice," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 125, 1994, pp. 198-205.

Kimbrough TD, Llewellyn GC, and Weekley LB, "The Effect of Aflatoxin B1 Exposure on Seratonin Metabolism," Metabolic Brain Disease, 1992, pp. 175-182.

Lye MS, Ghazali AA, Mohan J, Alwin N, and Nair RC, "An Outbreak of Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Due to Severe Aflatoxicosis in Malaysia," Am J Tropical Medicine & Hygeine, 53, 1995, pp. 68-72.

Massey TE, "Cellular and Molecular Targets in Pulmonary Chemical Carcinogenesis: Studies with Aflatoxin B1," Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 74, 1996, pp. 621-628.

McLean M, and Dutton MF, "Cellular Interactions and Metabolism of Aflatoxin: An Update," Pharmacol Ther, 65, 1995, pp. 163-192.

Nigam SK, Ghosh SK, and Malaviya R, "Aflatoxin, Its Metabolism and Carcinogenesis--A Historical Review," J Toxicol Toxin Rev, 13, 1994, pp. 179-203.

Northup SW, McKenzie W, Thurston R, Hess R, and Kilburn K, Aflatoxin "Effects on Airway Cells in Rodents," abstract, Fed Proc, 34, 1995, p. 839.

Raisuddin S, Singh KP, Zaidi SI, Paul BN, and Ray PK, "Immunosuppressive Effects of Aflatoxin in Growing Rats," Mycopathologia, 124, 1993, pp. 189-194.

Schafer DF, and Sorrell MF, "Power Failure, Liver Failure," New Engl J Med, 336, 1997, pp. 1173-1174.

Smith, J.E.; Moss, M.O. 1985. Mycotoxins Formation, Analysis, and Significance John Wiley and Sons. NY.

Steyn PS, "Mycotoxins, General View, Chemistry and Structure," Toxicol Lett, 82-83, 1995, pp. 843-845.

Tutelyan VA, and Kravchenko LV, New Data on Metabolism and Action Mechanism of Mycotoxins, Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, trans. from Russian, 1981, pp. 88-89.

Verma RJ, Choudhary SB, "Hypercalcaemia During Aflatoxicosis," Med Sci Res, 1995.



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