Biotoxins and the Egotist's Cholestyramine Discovery
One of the most amazing things I have seen in the last twenty years is the claim by a "mold expert" he discovered the use of cholestyramine to bind biotoxins. This unusual person seems to read nothing on mycotoxins but his own dribble.
He reports in one writing the use of cholestyramine as if it was his idea to use it as a biotoxins binder, and especially as a mold toxin binder. What is the reality?
First, I routinely have to fix patients that went to him, and get his magic mill labs and treatment, and who lose immense income. Many feel the great sage treated them worse then a herd of cows.
Second, he has the immense arrogance to speak and correct others, who know vastly more about a topic than he does. He feels he is an expert in all matters. However, he is simply a sophomore fool with contempt for many, and especially anyone that does not agree with him, competes with him or offers another perspective.
Third, he obviously reads very little outside his own materials, because as an egotist, of course, no one knows what he knows—so he thinks. He is at times a defeated witness who is questioned as a peculiar being who seems to have a set standard report and he gabs all about his ideas, and the patient has a mere fraction in the report. He actually has convinced patients and lawyers, who were delighted with other more published physicians, that their report was inferior. Why? Simply, because it was not filled with his routine mill material. When asked to show his confusing data, he refuses and is enraged.
Fourth, he presents himself as a "biotoxin" expert and a "mold expert," and this includes giving the impression the use of cholestyramine was his finding. In addition, if others have that belief he is either too inept to read the literature or a pathological narcissist to admit it was the work of others.
There are over 3,000 articles on this binder in one database used by medical students. Meaning if one were to miss this material it would be unusual or lazy.
The use of CSM for binding mold biotoxins was clearly established many years ago in sample articles such as:
In vitro and in vivo studies to assess the effectiveness of cholestyramine as a binding agent for fumonisins.
Solfrizzo M, Visconti A, Avantaggiato G, Torres A, Chulze S.
Istituto Tossine e Micotossine da Parassiti Vegetali, CNR, Bari, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Several adsorbent materials were tested at I mg/ml for their in vitro capacity to adsorb fumonisin B1(FB1) from aqueous solutions. Cholestyramine showed the best adsorption capacity (85% from a solution containing 200 microg/ml FB1) followed by activated carbon (62% FB1). Bentonite adsorbed only 12% of the toxin from a solution containing 13 microg/ml FB1, while celite was not effective even at the lowest tested FB1 concentration (3.2 microg/ml). Cholestyramine was tested in vivo to evaluate its capacity to reduce the bioavailability of fumonisins (FBs) in rats fed diet contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides culture material. Rats were exposed for one week to FBs-free diet, FBs-contaminated diet containing 6 or 20 microg/g FB1 + FB2 and the same FBs-contaminated diet added of 20 mg/g cholestyramine. The increase of sphinganine/sphingosine (SA/SO) ratio in urine and kidney of treated rats was used as specific and sensitive biomarker of fumonisin exposure. The addition of cholestyramine to the FBs-contaminated diets consistently reduced the effect of FBs by reducing significantly (P < 0.05) both urinary and renal SA/SO ratios.
Cholestyramine protection against ochratoxin A toxicity: role of ochratoxin A sorption by the resin and bile acid enterohepatic circulation.
Kerkadi A, Barriault C, Marquardt RR, Frohlich AA, Yousef IM, Zhu XX, Tuchweber B.
Department of Nutrition, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
We have shown that the addition of cholestyramine (CHA, a resin known to bind bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract) to ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated rat diets reduced plasma levels of the toxin and prevented OTA-induced nephrotoxicity. To elucidate the mechanism of action of CHA, we carried out in vitro experiments to determine whether the resin may bind the toxin. For comparative purposes, binding of bile salts to the resin was also examined. Results showed that CHA binds both OTA and bile salts (taurodeoxycholate [TDC] and taurocholate [TCA]). Also, CHA showed greater affinity for OTA and TDC than for TCA. At 1 mM concentration, 96% of OTA and 80% of TDC were bound to the resin, while for TCA binding was only 50%. However, saturation of the resin was reached at higher levels with bile acids compared to OTA (3.67 mmol/g resin for TCA and 3.71 mmol/g resin for TDC versus 2.85 mmol/g resin for OTA). To characterize the nature of the binding of the toxin to CHA, NaCl (0 to 200 mM) was added to a fixed amount of OTA or bile acids. As expected, TCA absorption was decreased by the addition of NaCl (<50 mM), indicating electrostatic binding. However, OTA and TDC sorption was decreased only at high concentrations of NaCl (>150 mM), suggesting a stronger binding to the resin than that shown with TCA. Sequential competitive studies demonstrated that CHA binds more OTA than TCA. The results of the in vivo study show the role of bile salts in OTA absorption. The toxin's plasma levels at 1 and 3 h after a single oral dose of OTA were significantly decreased in bile salt-depleted rats compared to the control. Thus, the alteration of the bile salt biliary pool and OTA enterohepatic circulation may be an additional mechanism of action of the resin against mycotoxin toxicity.
Food Prot. 1999 Dec;62(12):1461-5.
PMID: 10606152 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cholestyramine and Biotoxins
Again, this general physician presents himself as discovering the use of cholestyramine for biotoxins with no real references to previous use, and yet many articles exist as early as the 70's with cholestyramine binding a very wide range of biotoxins. For example:
Partial purification of a toxin found in hamsters with antibiotic-associated colitis and reversible binding of the toxin by cholestyramine.
Humphrey CD, Condon CW, Cantey JR, Pittman FE.
Gastroenterology. 1979 Mar;76(3):468-76.
The ability of cholestyramine resin and other adsorbents to bind Escherichia coli enterotoxins.
Mullan NA, Burgess MN, Bywater RJ, Newsome PM.
Several adsorbent materials were evaluated for their ability to bind Escherichia coli enterotoxins. Cholestyramine, a strong anion-exchange resin, bound the heat-labile and the heat-stable types of enterotoxin and reduced significantly their effects ...
J Med Microbiol. 1979 Nov;12(4):487-96.
Many more articles are available, and this is from a mere single source that a first year medical student can use. However, if you want to research the many ways CSM has been used in the past for biotoxins, mycotoxins and mold cleaning grain use, you will have to do a small search yourself.